Final Exam Review

14 Pages

Course Code
MGT 304
George Williamson

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MGT304-Final Review Chapters 3 & 4  ABC’s of Attitude: o Affective component (emotion) o Behavioral component (behavior) o Cognitive component (thought)  Cognitive dissonance: a psychologically disturbing state of inconsistency between and individual’s attitude and his/her behavior (Rationalizing)  Organizational Commitment/Citizenship: How much one cares about the organization o Things you do but are not required to by your job  ABC’s of Human Experience: o Affective component (emotion) o Behavioral component (behavior) o Cognitive component (thought)  Affect: a broad range of feelings that people experience. o Emotions: shorter, happen because of a trigger o Moods: longer, not as obvious on where they come from  6 basic emotions: o Joy o Love o Sadness o Surprise o Fear o Anger  Basic Moods o Positive affect: how much you’re seeking rewards and engaging in life  Low in positive affect: bored  High in positive affect: excited o Negative affect: has to do with avoidance and fear.  Low in negative affect: chilling  High in negative affect: high in avoidance, fear, nervous  Display rules: how appropriate it is for people from different cultures to display their emotions  Sources of Stress: o Work related stressors o Life stressors  Stress and performance: o Constructive stress (eustress): moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization o Destructive stress (distress): low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization  Emotional and mood contagion/spillover effects: spreading of ones’ emotions and mood onto others  Emotional labor: regulating (masking) one’s emotions to display those desired by the organization  Emotional dissonance: inconsistencies between emotions we feel and emotions we project  Emotional Intelligence: Ability to understand and deal with emotions and manage relationships effectively  Four Dimensions of emotional intelligence:  Self-awareness: know yourself  Self-management/self-regulation  Social awareness: empathy, understanding emotions of others  Relationship management: social skills, motivation Chapter 5  Freud’s structural model of the psyche/personality o ID: animalistic part of ourselves o Ego: in the middle o Super-ego: society’s critical and moralized role  Carl Jung/Transpersonal Model o Ego self (conditioned self): always changing according to experiences and the expectation of self and others.  The source of judgment and old patterns.  When triggered the ego will go into defense, and irrational reaction o True self (higher self): the part of us that is whole, unchanging.  The source of love, self-acceptance, self-esteem, inner peace, wisdom and compassion  Instead of reaction, the True self generates a more reasoned, objective, thoughtful response  Big Five personality dimensions o Emotional stability  Being unworried, secure relaxed o Extraversion  Being outgoing, sociable, assertive o Openness to experience  Being creative, curious broad-minded o Agreeable  Being good natured, trusting, cooperative o Conscientiousness  Being reliable, responsible, persistent  Myers-Briggs/ Keirsey o E or I: energy gathering.  From extroverted to introverted o S or N: information gathering  From sensation to intuitive o F or T: Evaluation in problem solving.  From emphasis on feeling to an emphasis on thinking o J or P: personal conception traits:  From judging (having matters settled) to perceiving (keep decision open and flexible)  Components of self o Self concept: how you see yourself o Self confidence/self-esteem: how much you are worth o Self efficacy: believe in one’s ability to accomplish certain tasks  Locus of control: the extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life o External: people and circumstances o Internal: Yourself  Proactive personality: persevere until change occurs.  Machiavellian personality: “ends justifies means”  Narcissism: someone with a grandiose sense of self-importance, who requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant  Stress: a state of tension o Constructive stress (eustress): moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization o Destructive stress (distress): low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization o Sources of stress:  Work related stressors  Job  Life stressors  Family  Finances  Terminal values: goals an individual would like to achieve during their lifetime  Instrumental values: represent how a person goes about achieving their goals  John Holland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory o Realistic: physical/skill o Investigative: thinking/organizing o Social: helping others o Conventional: rules/order o Enterprising: verbal/advancement o Artistic: ambiguity/creativity  International Values o Power distance: how willing are people to accept status and power o Individualism/collectivism: which is more valued the individual or the group Chapter 6  Stages of Perception o Attention and selection o Organization o Interpretation o Retrieval  Schemas: guidelines created by experienced on how to behave on a particular situation  Selective perception: paying more attention to people or things that align with our own thinking  Halo effects: when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. (The way they dress, handshake)  Projection: the assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals o We see things not as they are but as we are  Transference: things from the past are projecting in the present  Two models/ two cognitive processes o Rational/systematic: left brain thinking o Intuitive: right brain thinking  Bounded Rationality: “within the box” thinking  Satisficing: choosing the first alternative that appears to give an acceptable satisfactory resolution to the problem o “Good enough” rule  Judgmental Heuristics: o Availability bias: something that has happened recently is the most available o Representativeness bias: past experience helps you make your decision o Escalation of commitment: continuation on a previously chosen course of action even though it’s not working  Rumination: going around and around thinking about something  Three Basic Systems of Ethics: o Deontology: deciding if something is right based on a set of rules o Consequentialism/utilitarianism: which choice will maximize utility and happiness o Virtue ethics: ethics of care Chapter 7 & 8  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory o Higher order:  Self actualization  Esteem o Lower order:  Love/belonging (social)  Safety  Physiological  McClelland’s Theory of Acquired Needs o Achievement o Affiliation o Power o People subconsciously emphasize one of these needs  Match the need to the career  Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene) o Hygiene factors (context)  Location, people, salary o Motivator factors (content): comes from the work itself  Satisfaction, meaning, achievement  Fairness: equity is not necessarily equality  Three Types of Organizational Justice o Distributive justice  Degree to which all people are treated the same o Procedural justice  How fair are procedure and rules o Interactional justice  How fair are managers to employees  Expectancy Theory of Motivation: M=E x I x V o Expectancy (self efficacy)  Efforts will yield acceptable performance o Instrumentality  Performance will be rewarded o Valence  Value of the reward is highly positive  Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation: goals should be o Difficult o Specific o Jointly-set o Accepted o Achievable o Feedback  Social learning theory o Learning from someone else’s experiences  Classical conditioning o Ties a stimulus to a response o Dog and the bell  Operant Conditioning/Reinforcement o Reinforcement: encouraging a behavior o Punishment: discouraging a behavior o Positive: adding something, increasing  Positive Reinforcement: praise, reward  Positive Punishment: spanking o Negative: withdrawing something  Negative Reinforcement: you don’t have to do your chores today  Negative Punishment: taking your phone away  Intrinsic rewards: direct result from the task itself o Meaningfulness, purpose, satisfaction  Extrinsic rewards: given by someone else o Pay, praise  Merit pay o Compensation for individual’s performance  Bonus  Profit sharing plans o If the company does well then the profit is shared with everyone  Gain sharing o Profit is shared with those who are responsible  Skill based pay o The more qualified you are the more money you make  You get an MBA  Performance management: should be o Evaluative o Developmental  Performance appraisal/review o Critical incident diaries  Document unusual success or failure o 360 Evaluation  Evaluation encompasses everyone  Job enrichment: enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job  Job sharing: one full time job is assigned to two or more people  Work sharing: you work a little less, get paid a little less but no one is laid off Chapter 9 & 10  Team: group of people with complementary skills o Eliminates hierarchal structure (collective responsibility)  Formal teams: officially designated by organization  Informal groups: emerge without being officially designated by the organization o “Water cooler” teams  Silos: isolated teams only focusing on their part. o Can be detrimental to an organization o Functional silos problem: silos only think about their group  Cross-functional teams: Used to solve organizational problems o Such as functional silos problem  Quality circles: brings people to think outside the box, then disband  Effective Teams: o High task performance o Morale/member satisfaction o Viable/continues on and on  Synergy: the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts  Social loafing: Some people fly under the radar and don’t produce as much work as others o Prevention  Defining roles is key  Be clear about expectations  Five Stages of Team
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