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PSY 110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Abraham Maslow, Gestalt Psychology, Unconscious Mind

Course Code
PSY 110
Study Guide

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Psy110 Exam #1 Review
Chapter 1: History
Psychology: the scientific study of the behavior of human and other animals
Six Approaches to Psychology
1. Psychoanalytic (Freud): theory of psychoanalysis- personality is shaped by early child
development, heavy analysis on sex (even breast feeding)/ego complex theories of
personality. Before Freud, people believe humans had rational thoughts. Unconscious
mind- According to Freud’s theory, the vast reservoir if the mind that holds countless
memories and feelings that are repressed or submerged because they are anxiety-
2. Behavioral (John Watson, Skinner): scientific approach to the study of behavior that
emphasized the relationship between environmental events and an organism’s
3. Gestalt (Wolfgang Köhler, Wertheimer): approach to psychology that argues that the
whole of an experiment is different from the sum of its parts. Gestalt psychology is an
active force in current investigations of perceptual processes and learning as well as
therapy, where it emphasizes the whole person.
4. Humanistic (Abraham Maslow, Rogers): approach to psychology that emphasizes the
role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we
live our lives.
5. Cognitive (thinking, memory, language, learning, problem solving, creativity)
6. Biological/Medical/Physiological/Health/Neuroscience: relationship between behavior
and physiological events within the brain and the rest of the nervous system.
True Experiment
Correlational Approach
1) Randomly divide subjects
2) Manipulate the independent variable
3) Measure the dependent variable
Ex: Mean coffee gp= 75 bpm
Mean coffee no gp= 65 bpm
May infer that coffee CAUSED in increase
in heart rate
1) Measure two variables
2) Calculate the relationship
Ex: Pearson’s correlation= +.90
Support for hypothesis but cannot infer
Correlation does not imply causation
Correlation studies often have
directionality problems and/or third
variable problems
William James:
He agreed with structuralists that psychology should study mental processes. Functionalism-
approach to psychology that emphasized the functional, practical nature of the mind. Influence
by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, functionalists attempted to learn how mental
processes- such as learning, thinking, and perceiving, helped people adapt.
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