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PSY 110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fly Away Home, Little Albert Experiment, Konrad Lorenz

Course Code
PSY 110
Study Guide

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PSY 110 Test #3 Class Notes
Chapter 11: Development
Developmental Psychology- the study of growth and change over time
initially they just looked at child development
Freud thought you were fully developed when you hit puberty, now we look
at life span development
Initially- life span= birth to death, then realized that it starts in the womb so
they said life span=conception to death and finally they concluded that
things you do before having children can affect them such as radiation
1. Middle ages Original Sin goal if child rearing was salvation. - kids are born
with sin ex: baptize a child to purify them
2. Renaissance (14th to 17th Century)
In the 17th century: John Locke- Tabula Rasa/Blank Tablet all about how you
raise a child
In the 18th century: John Jacque Rousseau- children are all born good ex:
cherub fat angel baby Innate Goodness= Noble Savage-theme in literature
such as Tarzan who was raised by animal yet the most noble
3. More recently, in 1920s scientists began carefully observing children.
John Watson- Little Albert where government put money into programs for
child development
Little Albert: The Little Albert Experiment demonstrated that classical
conditioningthe association of a particular stimulus or behavior with an
unrelated stimulus or behaviorworks in human beings. In the experiment,
psychologist John Watson was able to condition a previously
unafraid baby to become afraid of a rat
In 1960’s, US government put money into programs like Head Start and the
science of Developmental Psychology took off
Issues in Development
A. Nature (biology, genetic, inborn) vs. nurture (learning, environment)
B. Continuity vs. discontinuity
ex: math is either smooth and continuous or abrupt, tree grows in a continuous
fashion however a butterfly’s growth is discontinuous
C. Cross sectional/Longitudinal research (preferred) methods
Cross sectional is quicker but has problems ex: IQ random sampling lead to
artificial finding

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PSY 110 Test #3 Class Notes
Longitudinal research- can extend over years measuring the same people over
and over
(John Horn, 1980)
Fluid Intelligence- the ability to learn new things (ex: your fluid intelligence for
learning a new language is at its peak when you are younger)
Crystalized Intelligence- the ability to apply something you have already learned
Prenatal Development
1. Stages:
Zygote (0-2 weeks)
Embryo (2-8 weeks)
Fetus (2-9 months)
2. Teratogens (something that causes birth defects):
Alcohol- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) causes minor facial deformities and
severe mental deficits and/or could possibly cause an alcohol addiction
Heavy metals like lead & mercury- can cause mental retardation, still birth,
or lead poisoning (ex: eating too much fish)
Vitamin A and D in large doses- can cause birth defects
Thalidomide (invented as a sleeping remedy addictive)
o born without arms and/or legs
o if the woman took the pill the day that the arms were forming,
the child would have issues with their arm
Rubella/German Measles- a disease that if a pregnant woman gets, her child
may be born with blindness/hearing impairments
Zika- if a woman gets zika while pregnant, her child will get microcephaly
(small head) mental retardation
3. Advantages of Breast Feeding:
Creates a bond between mother and child
Recognized and prefers the mothers voice, face, and smell
Superior to formula feeding
o Encourages bond
o Nutrients
o Higher IQ by 5-6 points due to formula’s missing ingredient (10-
15 years ago)
o Grow faster

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PSY 110 Test #3 Class Notes
o Contains antibodies which develop their immune system
Social Attachment (Attachment Theory)
A. Freud- Believed the baby bonded with the mother due to oral gratification
B. Harlow and Zimmerman (1959)- proposed that food was necessary but
contact and comfort was more important to the bond
o They did an experiment with 2 monkeys. 1 was raised in isolation in a
cage with fake mothers. One was made with wire and the other had
terrycloth around it. The monkey always went to the one with
terrycloth, proving Freud theory to be inaccurate.
C. Konrad Lorenz- Imprinting, during a critical period (about 36 hours)
o He hatched geese and studying waiting births. The ducks have ground
nests and 12-13 eggs. The geese thought that he was their mother.
Movie: Fly Away Home and YouTube: Daisy the Goose
D. Erik Erikson (1968) Trust vs. Mistrust (age 0-2) so attachment for humans
probably includes all of the above
E. Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test Securely Attached vs. Insecurely
Attached- determines if securely attached to the mother
Trust X Mistrust
Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development (Assimilation and
Schemas- mental framework, organize world with pre-existing schemas
All learning occurs by:
Assimilation- New info fits with what we already know
Accommodations- New info does not fit, change the schema
Egocentrism- self-centered
1. Sensorimotor (0-2) Object Permanence
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