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All notes for Psychology 110 with Gillis

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 110
Professor
Rod Gillis
Semester
Spring

Description
Psychology 110 2/27/2013 12:37:00 PM Psychology: Scientific study of mind and behavior  It’s a science because it uses the scientific method  Behavior, mind The mind is the product of a healthy brain  Memories, thinking feeling  Motivates your behavior Six Approaches to Psychology  Psychoanalytic (Freud) – o Personality is shaped by unconscious thought process o early childhood sexual experiences shape our personality, subconscious, id ego superego  Behavioral (Watson, Skinner) o You can only study the behavior of an animal or person, you can’t study thinking, hoping, feeling (what can be observed)  Watson: Classical conditioning – dog and bell  Skinner: Operent Conditioning  Gestalt (Kohler, Wertheimer) o the whole is more than the sum of the parts o two white lights alternate in a dark room, perceive movement o led to motion picture o Nazis shut down psychology in Germany  Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers) – o needs hierarchy, every person is motivated to reach their full potential but they are stopped along the way by the negativity of important people in their life o nobody is fully 100% self-actualized  Cognitive o thinking, memory, language, problem solving, creativity o problem is measuring quantitative data o asking a person what they are thinking is unreliable  Biological/Medical/Physiological o Everything we do and everything we are is a chemical balance o Depression could be a chemical imbalance o Tumors could affect personality or moods Fields of Specialization Human Services  Clinical – become a psychologist (schizophrenia, depression)  Counseling – can also become a psychologist (everyday living, marriage, family etc.)  Community – financial aid, help people navigate the community  School – clinical psychologist applied to school settings Applied  Educational – what’s the best way to teach math to 3 rdgraders  Forensic – law and criminal judgement, from jury to defendant  Sports  Industrial/Organizational – how things affect productivity  Health – doctor/nurse relationships, patient relationships  Engineering – psychology in designs Experimental – research  Social – social interactions  Personality – psycho study of personality  Cognitive - mind  Developmental – person’s growth and development  Physiological/medical/biological Difference between experimental and applied, experimental is just for the sake of knowledge, applied is using it History of Psychology A. Charles Darwin (1859) – not a psychologist, biologist, but psychology really begins here, book: The Origin of Species, wrote about the theory of evolution short, average, tall height vs. frequency , normal distribution graph, bell shaped curve variations evolution selects from the gene pool B. Wilhelm Wundt/Titchener– first scientific psychologist, published a lot Titchener – Wundt’s student, first American psychologist to teach this, School of Structuralism C. Sir Francis Galton – anthropometric, measures height and weight, breathing capacity, memory, etc. of citizens in London, trying to prove that characteristics run in families, Anthropometric lab – “measurement of people”, co-relations math, used Pearson’s correlation coefficient William James – philosopher, genius, American, Principles of Psychology, disagreed with Titchener about School of Structuralism, created School of Functionalism, structure is not important, motivation is important Introspection – to look within, observe your own experiences, Stream of consciousness – not organized, saying whatever comes to your mind Sigmund Freud – unconsciousness, childhood sexual experiences Ivan Pavlov – dog saliva James Watson – American psychologist, essay, emphasis on behaviorism, conditioned a phobia of white things into a little boy named albert, to prove you could counter-condition someone, but someone adopted him so they couldn’t counter-condition him Ethical Issues Institutional Review Boards (IRB)  Crew of fellow researches, anyone on human research  Write very detailed plan of what they are to do w/ subjects  Studies using humans must be approved Minimize risk Informed consent  People must know what their job is in an experiment and agree Right to Privacy  Can’t tell part of experiment before, but debriefed after Record Keeping  Notes? Look at book Animal Research  Strict guidelines and ethical issues Scientific Method Observation – Theory – Testable Hypothesis – test it Yes: support No: modify First written about in the 1600’s Testable hypothesis must be falsifiable : very specific, one variable Theories are never proven, goal is to advance the understanding of a specific topic True experiment  Randomly divide subjects into two groups  Manipulate the independent variable  Measure the dependent variable Must do a test of significance Correlation does not imply causation Statistics The field of Statistics can be divided into 2 branches (Descriptive and Inferential)  The goal of Descriptive Statistics is to present data in an easy to understand way. This includes: 1. Measures of Central Tendency  a. Mean ( X )  b. Median  c. Mode   2. Measures of Variability  a. Range  b. Standard Deviation (S)  c. Variance  X-X Z =  3. z- score S - comparison of different variables   4. The Normal Curve and z-scores  (see attached graph.)   5. Correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r)  Ranges from -1.0 to +1.0  A correlation has 2 qualities (direction  and magnitude)   6. Graphs (There are many kinds)  a. Bar Graphs  b. Histograms  c. Line Graphs   7. Data tables   B. Inferential Statistics is the branch that uses some descriptive statistics (like the Mean and Standard Deviation) along with probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality. A few inferential tests are:  1. z-test – based on z-scores   2. t-test – works with two groups   3. F-test or ANOVA – works with more than two groups   4. Regression   5. Chi Square Csquared – based on frequencies  Such tests, when used properly, allow us to determine if obtained results are significant or reliable. Significant is different in psychology – it means reliable, real, repeatable, not due to chance Inferential Statistics – branch that uses some descriptive statistics along with probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality Chapter 3 Overview of the nervous system Nervous system  Central (brain and spinal cord)  Peripheral – all other nerves o Somatic – voluntary o Autonomic – self regulating  Sympathetic – arousing, activates when excited, frightened, angry, active, adrenaline rush  Parasympathetic – calming, activates when meditating, falling asleep, in a trance, hypnotized The Neuron  Cell body: Soma – greek for body o Has nucleus and everything o Around the soma are branches called dendrites, receive information o Axon: Myelin cells wrap around and insulate the axon, insulating myelin sheath, speeds up transition, insulating support cell o Terminal fibers: at the end are called terminal buds, swelling o Messages only go one way o Synapse: gap between neurons, like a traffic policeman at the interception, says all messages must stop unless the cop lets you through  Neurotransmitters: KNOW THEM o Acetylcholine o Norepinephrine o Dopamine o Serotonin o Gamma-aminobutryric acid (GABA) When a cell fires, it releases its contents into the synapse Brain In the beginning they had to wait for people to suffer brain diseases/injuries to study them Induced lesions in cats Now we have imaging techniques  CAT scan – locates brain tumors  PET scan – indicate activity of different brain areas, inject person with radioactive substance  MRI (FMRI) – magnetic resonance imaging, detailed picture of soft tissue, 3D,  Lesions, stimulation, and recording – natural or induced by removing a part of the brain and observing changes Overview of the Brain  Cerebreal Cortex (Cerebrum, Neocortex) o Main thing you see in the brain, thin structure folded in on itself, two halves,  Corpus Callosum – thick bundle of fibers  Contralateral Connection – left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa  Cerebellum – Oval structure, has left&right hemisphere, controls things like balance, movement, heart rate, blood pressure  LEFT LOBE – analysis, verbal activity (talking, understanding, speech, reading, writing) Right Lobe – synthesis, putting elements together, perceiving whole, maps, 3D sketch, Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex o Frontal lobe - movement o Temporal lobe - hearing o Occipital lobe – vision o Parietal lobe – feelings, sensations o Broca’s area – left frontal lobe, language production, movement for mouth, tongue, speech, o Aphasia – inability to speak due to damage to the Broca’s area o Weinicke’s area – language comprehension Visual Systems  The geography of the visual field is retained in the primary visual cortex (anything that is in the visual field is occupying the same position in the primary visual cortex, although it is backwards)  Visual agnosia – inability to identify something visually A. Binocular Cues  1. Binocular disparity o Leads to stereopsis in the brain (stereogram)  2. Convergence B. Monocular cues (1 eye)  1. Motion Parallax o relative motion  2. Elevation above horizon o height on a plane  3. Interposition o overlap  4. Linear Perspective o parallel lines, will appear to converge in the distance  5. Aerial Perspective o atmospheric haze: in the distance, things become hazier  6. Relative brightness o objects in the foreground are perceived brighter  7. Texture Gradient o objects need to get smaller in the distance  8. Shading o shadows create depth III. Perceptual Constancy  A. Size constancy o The closer the object, the bigger it is, but we can tell that they are just different distances from us  B. Shape Constancy o We see the same object although the image is changing (door opening)  C. Brightness constancy o We can perceive colors as constant even when lighting conditions change IV. Other issues in Perception  Top-Down Processing o Seeing the whole and then if necessary, noticing the elements that make it up EX: reading, see the whole word first, and then if necessary see the letters  Bottom-up processing o Assemble the whole from the pieces V. Attention  Earliest idea was that there was a tiny person in your head that decided what to pay attention to  Visual attention: if you are focused on one area, it will take you longer to notice something somewhere else  Attention can shift independent to looking, you don’t need to look at something to pay attention to it  Dichotic Listening studies of the 1950s: put headphones on human subjects, one ear would send one message, the other ear would be a different message, you would be asked to “shadow” one ear while ignoring the other, you turn off the other ear, the only thing they would hear is your name or swearing (Cocktail Party Phenomenon) Sleep and Altered States I. What is consciousness?  Rogue and mirror test –Put some rogue on a child’s nose without them knowing, Put the child in front of the mirror, they see a different kid, may laugh at him, think they’re brother or sister, don’t think at all it’s them, after a certain age the child will recognize that it’s them with rogue on their nose o Great apes, gorillas, chimps, bonobos, orangutans, and humans are the only animals that can pass this test  Tarzan Syndrome – if you’re a small monkey you can jump from branch to branch and make an occasional mistake, if you’re a large monkey jumping from branch to branch you have to know how big you are to pick branches that can hold your weight, if you’re not smart enough you will die, have to develop an awareness of theirselves  An awareness of being aware of one’s surroundings II. What is Altered Consciousness?  Not processing information in a normal way, meditation, prayer, texting, very emotional: anger, fear, anxiety, III. Sleep, the best studied altered state  A. Brain activity varies during sleep o EEG- Electroencephalograph – electrodes attached to head, different wave patterns during sleep  Alpha Wave – produced when a person begins to relax  Beta Wave – produced when wide awake  REM sleep – Rapid eye movement period of being asleep, this is when you dream, your eyes start moving, watching the movement of the story, your dream may seem very long but actually only 5 mins.  Hypnogogic state – in-between awake and asleep, usually when you go over the day  B. Circadian Rhythms – daily rhythms, all animals/plants have it o The sun resets our rhythm o Melatonin – our circadian rhythms are regulated by this hormone, light-sensitive, makes you tired, electricity allows there to be “night people”, evolution gave us this hormone o Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) – fairly new, seasonal depression in the winter, due to shortness of the days, gain weight, don’t have energy, move south to combat it,  C. Why do we sleep? o 1. Repair Theory – we wear ourselves out, we need to re- charge/repair damaged cells/tissues, emotional repair, o 2. Adaptive Nonresponding – evolution found it adaptive, helped us survive,  D. Why do we dream? o 1. Repression Hypothesis (Freud) – dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind  manifest content – what it appears to be  latent content – what it actually is about o w. Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis  cerebral cortex is shut down, not 100% off, there is random activation (random neural activity), the unconscious mind tries to connect these and make a story about it, st o 3. Problem-Solving Hypothesis - 1 dream is about what happened today, caused you anxiety, gets farther and farther back in time as the dreams goes on, final dream ties past experiences with current and seeking resolution o 4. Memory Consolidation – one of the main purposes of dreams is to help consolidate memories. Dreams “edit” memories and move certain things into long term shortage. The “discarded” memories make up dreams  E. Sleep Disorders o Insomnia – none, inadequate or unsatisfying sleep o Narcolepsy – sleep seizures, seems to run in families o Sudden Infant Death Syndrome – an otherwise healthy baby with no medical problems could die in their sleep, “Back to Sleep Program” – minimize what’s in the crib, put babies to sleep on their back, SIDS % decreased o Sleep apnea – adults, stop breathing during sleep o Sleep walking (Somnambulism) – Walking around, eyes open, but no memory o Sleep talking o Bed Wedding (Enuresis) – kids dream they are in the bathroom o Nocturnal Myoclonus – more common in older people, people kick violently, swing arms, etc. o  Topics for test o History o Stats and methods o Brain and behavior o Perception o Visual states like sleep o Don’t worry about chemistry on the neuron o Don’t worry about the drugs o B+ o Chapter 6, Learning Six Different Kinds of Learning  Habituation/Sensitization o When a novel stimulus is presented, if nothing bad follows, an animal will stop responding to it, coin on hand o If bad happens, they will react more strongly to it next time  Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian) o Conditioning = Associative Learning = Pavlovian o Dog/saliva experiment  Operant Conditioning o B. F. Skinner, reward/punishment o The animal must engage in some operation that is either rewarded or punished, will change behavior  Observational Learning = Social Learning = Imitative Learning = Modeling o You see someone do something and you repeat it  Insight Learning (Kohler’s apes) o Apes realizing they have to put the two sticks together to get the fruit o Advances culture Learning -Taste (flavor) aversion: when a person or animal eats something that makes them sick, they will likely never want to eat that again. This is an immediate reaction. Classical Conditioning: -Ivan Pavlov was the first to write about this. -Unconditioned Stimulus leads to unconditioned response (meat presented to dog, dog salivates; bell rings, dog does nothing). Natural reflex. -Then create some kind of repeated pairing (ring bell, feed dog- do this over and over). -Conditioned Stimulus leads to conditioned response (dog will now salivate to bell). Following training, the conditioned stimulus will elicit the same response as the unconditioned stimulus. -Learning Curve: -acquisition trials (CS paired with UCS) - look for strength of conditioned response, this will eventually level off -some will learn response quicker than others -extinction trials (CS alone) - animal will slowly stop responding. They learn that the two things are no longer associated -sometimes after a pause, animal will respond to CS alone again, and then learn to stop responding again -generalization- applying previous learning to a new situation -discrimination - failure to generalize because the situation is different enough to matter -Therapy -Watson showed that you can easily teach a phobia to a child. Mother's fear leads to baby's fear. Babies imitate and gradually learn that mother's fear means they should be scared. For example, if a mother is frightened of birds, the baby will see her reaction and eventually learn to be afraid of birds also. Essentially, a mother can easily pass on a phobia through classical conditioning -Phobias can also be genetic -Wolpe published papers on systematic desensitization -This method asks you to write down a list of phobias in order from least fearful to most fearful. Then you learn to relax in the presence of the easiest and work your way up. Almost hypnosis: deep relaxation. You continue to do this until you reach your goal. Does not necessarily have to be the biggest fear, just whatever you want to overcome. -This is classical conditioning because you are learning to associate the phobic with relaxation rather than fear. -Aversive conditioning is aimed at bad habits. For example, if you are a smoker, smoke until you get sick so you don't want to smoke anymore. The idea is to cause you to stop liking the bad habit and start hating it. Associate a negative feeling with the habit. This type of conditioning can often backfire. Also based on classical conditioning because you are being led to associate the bad habit with negative feelings. -Drug addiction is also a form of classical conditioning. When you are addicted to a drug, you have been conditioned to associate the drug with other things. After people go to therapy to get off a drug, if they are in the same environment that they previously used in, they may start using again. Therefore, therapy must include elements of the environment in order to prevent relapse. Operant Conditioning: -Thorndike and his puzzle box -Random trial and error. In the process, they will randomly find the solution. -Law of Effect: Any behavior followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future. Any behavior followed by a punishment will be less likely to occur in the future. The outcome affects the likelihood of the behavior. -A reward is anything that makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur in the future. -A punishment is anything that makes the behavior of interest less likely to occur in the future. -Sometimes with a problem child, it works better to reward the good behavior than to punish the bad behavior reward =reinforcement negative reinforcement = take away something bad, ie letting someone out of jail, reducing the grounding time, negative means subtraction punishment – taking away something good primary reinforcement = food, water, shelter, necessary things, drugs can be, biologically reinforces secondary reinforcement = with money you can buy things you want, have value only because they allow you to get primary reinforcements B. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Chamber (the skinner box) Manipulandum (lever) – something the animal can do Either gets rewarded or punished Schedules of Reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement – when you press the lever the rat gets fed, every press is a reinforcement  Partial Reinforcement o Fixed Ratio – how many times the animal has to press the lever to get food, 1, 2, 3 ,4 o Variable Ratio - probability of being reinforced each time is 1/5, slot machine o ____ o Fixed interval – every 5 mins the animal will get food but they have to press the lever, animal realizes bursts of activity o Variable interval o Commission : 10% of whatever you sell, fixed ratio o Look at graphs  Resistance to extinction – hoping the behavior will continue even after reinforcement stops, more exposure to non-reinforced trials helps  Shaping = successive approximation, dog training  Chaining = stringing tricks together  Superstitious behavior as reinforcement approaches random = comes up with own idea as to how to get the food to come down although its just random, people with lucky items  Acquisition/Extinction/Discrimination and Generalization apply also  Behavior modification therapy  Token economy token system to reward people for good behavior, punishment is taking tokens away  Biofeedback = provides info about your body you wouldn’t know otherwise (heart rate, blood pressure etc.) Observational Learning ( social, imitative learning, modeling) Albert Bandura – Bobo Doll Studies 1965  Bobo the clown, tall, if you knock him over he bounces up  Study on aggression, shows a video of a woman beating up bobo and saying violent things to children  They leave the room, the child goes and beats up bobo  6 or 7 out of 10 would imitate it, girls slightly less aggressive  kids will imitate aggression  looking at the question does violent media cause violence  half the kids see a video where at the end the woman gets praised, other half sees video where the woman gets reprimanded  second half is far less likely to beat bobo up  vicarious reward, vicarious punishment = somebody elses reward or punishment affects the behavior of the participant  for the first time they have to make a distinction between learning and behavior  no-trial learning = learn something, learn that it is wrong, therefore never do it Chaper 7 : Memory I. Time Frames of Memory  A. Sensory Register (Sperling, 1960) o Tachistoscope: 1/20 th of a second slide projector  Led to subliminal advertising  Sensory register, image disappears quickly o Iconic memory: visual, very brief o Echoic memory: auditory o Eidetic Imagery: photographic memory  B. Short Term Memory (less than 1 minute) – hold the content of a sentence, so we have the idea o The workbench of memory – place where we have to understand, encode it or we will lose it, moving into long term memory o Serial Position effect – (4 related terms) words at the beginning and the end are best remembered  Proactive interference: early information interferes with what comes next  Retroactive inference: more recent things are interfering with older conent : o Horse garage bench apple puppy calendar ship o Very limited capacity  On average people can recall 7 pieces of information (names, faces, numbers tc. At a time)  This is the reason that phone numbers are 7 digits long  Short term memory is very limite d- you can focus your attention on one task at a time  Evolutionary reason: communication  Chunking: you can break information into meaningful pieces so we process them as separate bits of info  C. Long Term Memory o Can last anywhere from a minute up to the rest of your life  Episodic – memory from personally experienced episodes of your life  Semantic – facts and abstract knowledge  Procedural – skills and habits, muscle memory II. The Encoding Process + Storage  A. Shallow Processing o Rehearsal = maintenance rehearsal, repetition, least effortful thing you can do, lowest level of processing, least likely to be remembered  B. Deep Precessiong – effortful processing o Elaboration = elaborative rehearsal, doing something other than just repeating o Organization o Visual Imagery – picturing an image  Mnemonic Devices – tying something new to something you already know  Method of Loci – associating things with rooms in the house  Acrostics  Acronym III. Forgetting – failure to retrieve information, some people think all the memories we have are in our brain, we just don’t have access to them  A. Three theories to explain forgetting o Decay Theory – Neural decay, the connection between neurons goes away o Interference Theory – proactive and retroactive o Motivated (active) forgetting – Freudian repression, repress things we don’t want to remember  B. Amnesia o Retrograde (complete or partial) – person forgets all of the past or a piece of the past, lost episodic memory, possibility of recovery of lost memories o Anterograde – can’t make new memories o Dream amnesia  When people look at a photograph or someone else mentions something that is referring to something in the dream, it comes back in a flood to you in your memory. The Reconstructive Nature of Memory Eye Witness Testimony  Notoriously inaccurate  Eye witnesses make mistakes  No correlation between certainty and accuracy Elizabeth Loftus  Implanted Memories o Students watch video and had to retell what happened in the video o When the teacher asked the students how fast the car was going when passing the barn, they created a barn in their memory – implanted memory  Schema o Mental Framework or Outline o We have many mental frameworks o We reconstruct memory from pre-existing frameworks  False Memory Syndrome o Applied to therapy o Memory recover o Some people think that their lives were ruined by something that never happened Miscellaneous topics  Search for the ENGRAM with Planaria (1962) o People thought that ENGRAM was RNA o Looking for ENGRAM with Planaria o They continued search with Aplysia (Sea Slug)  Eric Kandel’s work with Aplysia (1989) o Memory involves gene expression o Result of genes being turned “on” o Thus both learning and memory are extensions of the developmental process. In all other cell types development is finished by about age 12. In neurons developmental differentiation continues across the lifespan. CHAPTER 8 MOTIVATION Instinct Theory (Evolutionary Theory)  Freud’s instincts: Eros and Thanatos o Eros is the Life instincts (Love) o Thanatos is the Death instinct o Includes Crime, Rape, Suicide, Depression, etc o These theories proved to be unhelpful o Instinct Theories don’t answer the questions Drive Theories (Drive Reduction Theory)  Biological Need  Drive State (uncomfortable)  Behavior to Reduce the Drive  Need for food  Hunger (uncomfortable)  (motivates us to) Eat  Frustration Aggression Hypothesis o We like to reach our goals o If we don’t, we go into a state called Frustration. Frustration leads to Aggression Arousal Theory = Optimal Level Theory  If we have too much, we want less  If we have too less, we want more  Some people need high levels to optimize their level. Humanistic Theory (Maslow)  All people are motivated to reach their full potential but you have to go through these steps  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Bottom to top: physiological, safety, love and belonging, self- esteem, self-actualization  Self-actualizing people tend to have had one or several peak experiences (higher levels of human consciousness), ex: moment of incredible clarity, mystical Social Learning More modern, our motivations are taught to us socially (observational learning) Personality I. Definition and some history  The scientific study of stable characteristics that differentiate people  A. Trait/state distinction o Personality Social Psychology Trait State Internal External Stable Unstable Typical Situational o Traits are caused by internal factors, interior makeup or past experiences, typical  B. Early Attempts o 1. Astrology  looking at clusters of stars, constellations that looks like something o 2. Phrenology  people thought that they could predict your personality by measuring your head  personality is in the brain, though it is not localized like the picture o 3.Somatotypes  Ectomorph – too skinny , Mesomorph – not too thin/fat, muscular, fit, endomorph – too fat o 4. Palm Reading o 5. Graphology  Handwriting II. Psychoanalytical Approach (Psychodynamic) A. Freud (Brief History) – born in Austria 1856, neurologist, talking therapy, learning and lived in London, cancer of the mouth, asked his doctor to kill him  1. The structure of personality o ID (Pleasure Principle): unconscious, a baby is born with the ID, self-centered o Ego (Reality principle): semi-conscious, consequences to behavior, learned through operant conditioning o Superego (Morality Principle): semi-conscious, being aware of what is the right thing to do  2. The (Ego) Defense Mechanisms o Repression – pushing uncomfortable thoughts, memories, feelings into unconscious awareness o Rationalization – seeking a better explanation for your behavior o Projection – project your thoughts and feelings onto someone else o Displacement – Shifting your anger from the source to a safer target o Regression – going back to an earlier time o Reaction Formation – in order to maintain the illusion of independence, you do this  Reactance – doing the opposite of what someone tells you to do o Denial – refusing to acknowledge a truth o Sublimation – there could be no culture without it, converting primitive urges into socially acceptable behavior  3. Psychosexual Development o 1. Oral (0-2) Oral Fixations: everything gets explored with the mouth, too much breastfeeding is bad o 2. Anal (2-3) Anal Retentive: toilet training can cause anal fixation o Anal Expulsive: OCD, like things neat and in order o 3. Phallic (3-7) children become interested in the difference between gender/sex  Oedipus Complex: Little boys
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