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University of Miami
PSY 110
Luly Casares

September 18, 2012 1. Jung was designated as Freud’s “spiritual heir” went on to develop theory different analytical Where Jung disagreed with Freud a) Jung disagreed on the basic issue of sexuality  Broadened libido redefined it as generalized psychic energy (as opposed to sexual energy Freud) b) Jung disagreed with Freud on nature of human  Freud humans are prisoners of past done by age 5  Jung shaped by both future and past c) Disagreed on the idea of the unconscious  Jung put more emphasis on the unconscious than did Freud  Took ideas from religion, philosophy, culture, etc. 2. Jung’s life experiences:  bad childhood. He was born in Switzerland. His father and 8 uncles were clergymen  Close to father, yet considered him to be weak and powerless, moody, irritable, not strong authority figure  Mother= powerful (more than dad), but unstable (go from happy to mumbling, incoherent, etc.  saw his mother as 2 people in one person)  Relationship from mom made him become very suspicious of women. Described his mom as fat and unattractive rejected Oedipus complex  Would escape into the attack to escape, carved a wooden doll became only companion  Had one sister nine years younger than him  Would come up with fantasies to ease loneliness  Turned inward to the world of dreams and fantasies  Autobiography was entitled, “Memories, Dreams, Reflections”  Felt that his theory of personality reflected him subjective  Avoided other kids, very awkward  Whereas Freud reflected relationships, Jung reflected the solo  Hated school, resented it, preferred to be reading home alone  Had to stay home for 6 months sick  Overheard father “what will become of him if he can’t make a living?” affected his view of neuroticism  Jung went back to school medical school went into psychiatry  Developed association test (someone says a word, you say the first one that comes to mind ex. I say black you say white)  Freud and Jung close friendship Relationship of father and son  Wanted Jung to succeed him Jung = non-Jew Freud had feared that psych would be viewed as a profession for Jews  Severed relationship with Freud in 1913  Thereafter underwent neurotic breakdown even kept a revolver on him felt he couldn’t continue his scientific work, yet still felt capable of treating patients  Jung overcame neurosis through self-analysis and confrontation with his unconscious concluded with his own experiences that the most crucial stage of personality development was not childhood, but rather adulthood middle age  Nearly 2/3 of his patients were middle age men suffering from the same difficulties that he faced  Very well-travelled guy added to his theories culturally sensitive theories  Group of student started to follow him Jungians  Lived to be 86 years old  His ideas spread to the English speaking world  Rockefellers, McCormick’s, etc. paid to have his things translated bartered “analyze my mother and I’ll give you money to fund library, etc.”. Psychic Energy/Libido  One of the first things Jung disputed Freud was in libido saw it as a broad, undifferentiated life energy (not sexual as Freud did)  Jung had lots of extramarital affairs surrounded himself with lots of women patients female disciples they fell deeply in love with him, then he’d sleep with them (this bothered Freud, knew it was transference, disapproved, part of what broke them up altogether)  Defined libido in 2 ways: 1. Diffused, general life energy 2. Narrower psychic energy that fuels personality he called the personality the psyche  through psychic energy, psychological activities (thinking, wishing, feeling, etc.) are carried out when you invest a lot of psychic energy in something (ex. seeking power), it is said to have a high psychic value Total personality of psyche is composed of several distinct systems, each influencing one another. Major systems: 1. Conscious: Ego similar to Freud’s, but more broken down center of consciousness responsible for perceiving, thinking, feeling, and remembering responsible for our awareness of ourselves it’s the part of psyche responsible for carrying out daily activitiesego is selective, allows into conscious awareness only a portion of the stimuli we’re exposed to reaction to environment is determined by 2 opposing mental attitudes: a. Extroversionschannels towards the outside world (say hi to 10 people on way to class) sociable, affable people b. Introversion focus on themselves, their own thoughts and feelings shy, withdrawn  Have the capacity for both but are dominated by one the one that’s dominant determines your behavior non-dominant part is still there, remains influential over behavior but becomes part of another part of psyche which Jung called the personal unconscious therefore, someone can be dominantly introverted and still extroverted in some situations  4 psychological functions: i. Sensing reproduces an experience through the senses (tasting, smelling, hearing, touch, etc.) ii. Intuiting does not arise from external stimuli (ex. in dark room you can’t see, etc. yet you can have a “hunch” that there’s someone in the room with you) iii. Thinking involves evaluating whether something is true or false (such as on an exam) iv. Feeling involved in terms of like vs. dislike, pleasurable vs. not pleasurable  The first two are grouped together non-rational functions  The latter two are grouped together rational functions Involve making judgments and evaluating out experiences organizing and categorizing out experiences  We have the capacity for all 4 of these functions we are dominated by one of these functions one dominant function, the rest is submerged into your personal unconscious one pair of functions that is dominant and then within the pair you have one that’s dominant  Came up with 8 personality types a. Extraverted thinking type lives pretty strict within society rules, repress feelings and emotion  dogmatic, opinionated peoplemake good scientists of judges learn about external world and then use logic or rules to try and explain it seem rigid and cold at a party (ex. Judge Judy) b. Extraverted feeling type tend to repress thinking mode very emotional people conform to traditional values and moral codes sensitive to expectations of others “pleasers” make friends easily someone you’d want to hang with at a party Jung thought it was found more often among women than men (ex. Oprah, Ellen, Julia Roberts, Sandra Bullock) c. Extraverted sensing type focus on pleasure and happiness and seeking new experiences “thrill seekers” adapt to new situations and experiences very outgoing, love life, not very introspective (ex. Steve Irwin, Anthony Bourdain (from “No Reservations”), any of the Jackass guys, Julia Child, Richard Branson, the Man vs. Wild guy) d. Extraverted intuiting type very successful in business and politics keen ability to explore opportunities attracted to new ideas very creative and inspire others base a lot of decisions on hunches (usually correct) ex. Steve Jobs, Donald Trump, Bill Clinton, Russell Simons, Martha Stewart, JLo, JayZ e. Introverted thinking type Jung felt it was the rarest type (considered himself in this category) doesn’t usually get along well with others, have difficulty communicating ideas with others not the best practical judgment intensely concerned with privacy rather deal with theories and abstractions rather than people seem stubborn, aloof, distant, inconsiderate ex. Sheldon from the Big Bang Theory, engineering type people tend to fit into this category, Einstein f. Introverted feeling type represses rational thought capable of deep emotion but avoid any outward expression of it Quiet, mysterious, almost inaccessible can be kind of childish appear withdrawn, cold, self-assured writers and poets tend to fit into this category (write what they feel) ex. Edward Collin, Oscar Wilde, Silvia Plack, Edgar Allen Poe, Tennessee Williams, Steven King, Virginia Wolfe g. Introverted sensing type passive, calm, detached from everyday life can take a step back and look at human activity with amusement aesthetically sensitive, express themselves through art and music repress intuitive part of themselves because everything is based on visual or hearing ex. Bob Marley, John Lennon, Bob Dylan h. Introverted intuiting type focuses intently on intuition day dreamers, visionaries, don’t care about practical manners you may think they’re odd, strange, eccentric don’t plan well for future ex. Phoebe from friends, Willy Wonka, any psychic 2. Personal unconscious  2 major system of psyche  Similar to Freud’s preconscious  Reservoir of material that was once conscious, has now been suppressed either because it was trivial or disturbing  Lots of 2 way traffic between personal unconscious and ego (ex. going from thinking about a conversation that happened the night before to tuning back in to the professor’s lecture)  Like a filing cabinet not lots of psychic energy required to pull up a file as you have more experiences, though, you start grouping them into complexes pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes organized around a common theme ex. someone can have a complex of power tries to become more powerful by running for student council president, driving motorcycle, becoming close to people in power complexes can be conscious or unconscious one is usually unaware of how it affects behavior others can detect it easily some can be harmful, others useful (ex. perfectionist complex get into medical school, etc.) originate not only from childhood experiences but also from adult experiences and ancestral experiences (ancestral experience is contained in the collective unconscious) 3. Collective unconscious 1) Definition: Deepest, least accessible part of the psyche most controversial part of his theory Jung said that everyone as a species, humankind, files things into their collective unconscious therefore, the experiences of being human go into collective unconscious get passed from one generation to the next whatever experiences end up being universal (unchanged by each generation) become part of our personality linked personality to our childhood past and the history of the species you don’t inherit this directly (ex. you don’t inherit the fear of snake, but rather, the potential to fear snakes you inherit the predisposition to behave in the way those before you have behaved) whether or not that predisposition becomes reality depends on one’s experiences therefore there are certain basic experiences have characterized every generation throughout human history (ex. birth, death, fear of dark, having a mother figure, worshipped a God-like figure and feared an evil being) the universality of these experiences over generations leave an imprint on each of us at birth and determines how we perceive/react to the world “the form of the world into which a person is born is already inborn in him as a virtual image” (-Jung) 2) 4 Archetypes: Jung was reading info from ancient cultures found that there were certain common themes and symbols to his knowledge, there was no communication between such cultures patients were also talking about the same kinds of symbols in relating their dreams and fantasies therefore, Jung felt that they had to be carried and transmitted in each person’s unconscious mind aka primordial images, the reoccurring symbols/themes By being repeated in the lives of succeeding generations, archetypes are imprinted in one’s psyche become expressed in one’s dreams and fantasiesProposed the following archetypes Hero, mother, child, God, death, power, wisdom A. Persona: ex. in Macbeth mask that an actor would wear to present a particular role or face to an audience our public face, presenting ourselves a bit different than what we really are Jung felt that this was necessary needed to get along with different people can be harmful if you believe that your persona reflects your true nature instead of just a role, rest of personality doesn’t develop as is should called trds an inflation of your persona ex. actors referring to themselves in 3 person B. Anima/Animus believed that humans are bisexual (not orientation, but rather, that we have both male and female) you secrete hormones of both sexes on psychological level each person will exhibit characteristics of the opposite sex therefore, the psyche of the women contains masculine aspects (animus) and the psyche of the man contains feminine aspects (anima) says that we need this, enables us to get along with other sex therefore, aids in the survival and adjustment of the species Jung insisted that both anima and animus have to be exhibited, if not, you have an underdeveloped personality, and thus, a one- sidedness to personality (men who can’t get along with women and women can’t get along with men) C. The shadow contains the primitive instincts, the deepest roots of all the archetypes behaviors society would consider evil or immoral (kind of like part of id) has to be tamed so that we don’t all end up in jail like id, Jung said that it’s what leads to spontaneity, creativity, emotion, etc. Therefore, the shadow cannot be completely suppressed D. The self represents the unity and harmony of the integration of the total personality like yin and yang ultimate goal in life to have all aspects of personality balanced Assessment in Jung’s Theory He drew on science as well as mysticism. Technique that he came up with to try to get to the unconscious A. Word association: test someone was given a word, had to respond quickly with another word (ex. you say black I say white) you have the stimulus word, normal response, neurotic response ex. stimuli= tree, normal response=green, neurotic response=nature  measured the time it took for a patient to respond to each word as well as physiological responses (to determine the emotional effect of each word) making the same response to different words, responding with more than one word, making up words, not responding, and stammering were all bad tried to use this to figure out the complexes you were going through or that you had B. Also drew on dream analysis thought they were meant to prepare us, bring a balance of the opposites (ex. balance out a one-sided person, compensate for overdevelopment in any one part of your psyche) unlike Freud, didn’t break down every dream, but rather, would look at a series of dreams and detect similar themes C. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (online tests)considered the most practical outgrowth of Jung’s work will give you one of the 8 personality types Alfred Adler 1. Where he is different from Freud: Neo-psychoanalysts (meaning post Freud)  Didn’t depict people as victims (of biology or their past), but rather, developed what is called individual psychology (focused on uniqueness of everyone and denied the universality of biology)  Felt that we are all social beings our personalities are shaped by our social environment  Minimized the role of sex  Focused on conscious, not the unconscious felt that the conscious was the core of personality (therefore, ego)  We are actively involved in creating ourselves 2. His life experiences:  Freud and Adler were brought up in Vienna, went to same university, Freud was about 15 years older than Adler  Adler was influenced by his own childhood was sickly, very aware of death, extremely jealous of an older brother  Myth Jung was first to break away from Freud  Reality=Adler was the first to break away, followed by Jung 3. Adler’s theories  Adler felt that feelings of inferiority were always with us, and those are the motivating factors “to be a human being means to feel oneself inferior” (-Adler) so that this inferiority feeling is actually part of being human  Individual growth results from compensation our attempt to try and overcome inferiority feelings  We are born feeling inferior an infant is aware of his parent’s superiority in power (doesn’t believe this isn’t genetically determined, but rather, a product of one’s environment infant is dependent on adult) provides motivation to grow  What happens when a child is unable to overcome inferior feelings is the following those feelings are intensified and an inferiority complex is developed person has poor opinion of themselves, vulnerable and unable to deal with life, low self-esteem found this in a lot of the adults he was treating  Found that the inferiority complex came from 3 sources: 1. Organic inferiority developed this idea when he was till with Freud defective organ or body part shapes personality through the individual’s attempt to try and compensate for that defect or weakness (recall that Adler had a childhood marked by illness) ex. kid who is smaller may try and compensate by becoming a great athlete 2. Spoiling over pampering a child you think you’re the center of the universe when you go to school limits are placed by teacher over pampered kids can’t cope with all these limits spoiled kids may start thinking that there’s something wrong with them some personal deficiency is the reason why they’re not getting everything they want 3. Neglect if infancy and childhood=lack of love develop a sense of worthlessness, anger not going to view the world with a lot of trust  Says that a person may try to overcompensate for their weaknesses by developing a superiority complex persona who doesn’t feel good on the inside, yet brags all the time they’re vain, self-centered, etc.  Motivation and striving are source of inferiority feelings  Adler felt that we’re not just trying to get rid of inferiority feelings, but rather, we’re trying to get something more (this more changed over time) at first feminine, therefore accentuate masculine characteristics later rejected this and developed a broader viewpoint we are striving for superiority (not a superiority complex) or striving for perfection meaning (from its Latin roots) to “complete” or to “finish”, become whole  Adler saw human motivations in terms of expectations for the future (Freud saw it as embedded in the past)  Order of birth= major social influence  Different parenting styles depending on your birth order  Specifically wrote about 4 situations 1. The First Born unique and enviable position parents are very happy excited lots of time and attention (undivided) directed towards child therefore they have a pretty safe, secure, happy existence one the next child comes they are no longer focus of attention (essentially dethroned) this attention must now be shared put up a fight try and recapture former position of power become stubborn, ill behaved, destructive, refuse to follow directions, refuse to go to bed, hunger strike, etc.  parents retaliate first born blames second child may come to hate them Adler believed that all first born feel that shock those who were excessively pampered feel the greatest loss the older the first born is when the second one comes around the better the adjustment as adults the first born are oriented towards the past kind of pessimistic about future (having lost their power), remain interested in power Try and exercise it over younger siblings good organizers, conscientious, orderly authoritarian attitude Oprah , Hilary Clinton, Winston Churchill, Bill Clinton, Freud Freud was described as a first born believed that neurotic, criminals, were first born 2. The SeconrdBorn cause all the drama never experience that powerful position even if 3 one is brought, they don’t suffer the same dethronement as the first one have different types of parents not as nervous as the first time around, less concerned or anxious, more relaxed second born has a pace setter, have someone on front of them that they can watch first born could be a model, a threat (competition) Adler was 2 born, had a lifelong competition with brother felt overshadowed by him competition with 1 born can stimulate the 2 born hit milestone developments earlier (speak, walk, toilet trained earlier) not as focused on power (never having experienced it) if older sibling was great at sports or academics, the second born (instead of feeling competitive) may feel like “why bother? I’ll never be as good” Famous middle children princess Diana 3. The Youngest Child  never have the shock of dethronement, often become the pet of the family driven by the need to surpass older siblings, they develop even faster often high achievers unless they were excessively pampered (then they’ll feel like they don’t have to do anything, it’ll always be taken care of) Cameron Diaz, Rosie O’donald 4. The Only Child never lose the position of power, will always remain focus if they spend a lot of time around adults, they develop little adult personalities manifest adult behaviors very earlier likely to experience difficulties in areas outside of school (ex. school no longer center of attention don’t know how to share) only children may get disappointed if they don’t get recognition can be independent Tiger Woods, Chelsea Clinton  Did not think that these were set in stone rather that it was likely certain things would develop as a result of birth order Assessment in Adler’s Theory  Was a Freudian in the beginning would evaluate verbalization, how they would talk to them  More relaxed than Freud sat in comfy chair in front of patients sessions were more like chats would even tease patients  Was an observer way they shook his hand, method of payment  Primary methods of assessment: birth order, early recollections, and dream analysis  Like Freud (in term of early recollection) felt that our personality is created in first 4-5 years of life whatever you remember from this 4-5 years indicates the life that will characterize you as an adult doesn’t matter if the memories are real or fantasies  Asked physicians what they recalled Concerned with illness or death in the family  Adler one of his earliest memories afraid of walking to school path went through cemetery none of the other kids were afraid therefor felt inferior try to overcome this by running through cemetery a dozen times 30 years later ran into old schoolmate no one recalled the cemetery (wasn’t ever there)  Agreed with Freud that dreams were important didn’t believe they revealed hidden wished or desires felt that they involved out feelings about a current problem and what we intend to do about it dreams are oriented towards present and furture, not so much towards the past like Freud, felt that you should never interpret a dream without full knowledge of the dreamer  Dream: Manifestation of
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