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Psychology Notes Third Exam.doc

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PSY 110
Luly Casares

October 18, 2012 • Trait= distinguishing personal characteristic or quality what you use to describe someone ex. John is extroverted, good athlete, smart, etc. • Gordon Allport trait theorist became one of the most provocative psychologist to study personality made psychology a respectable pursuit systematic formal study of personality disputed Freud’s psychoanalysis on several points: 1. Did not accept the notion that unconscious forces affect personality in normal, mature adults felt that the unconscious was only important in neurotic or immature adults 2. Did not agree that we are prisoners of our past/childhood we are guided more by our present and how we see our future 3. Didn’t like the idea of collecting data from pathological subjects (people who have disturbed personalities) Fred saw personality as a continuum (ex. ranges from normal to abnormal) Allport rejected this, said abnormal personalities functioned at an infantile level, therefore, there’s no need to collect data from them preferred to study emotionally healthy adults emphasis on the uniqueness of personality defined by traits focused on traits ex. kits not that you’re depressed, your self-assured • Allport American, poor family, father smuggled drugs from Canada to US to try and make money father eventually took family to Indiana, opened private practice Allport had lonely childhood showed inferiority feelings during early childhood dealt with it by trying to become superior felt inferior to brothers and sisters went on an identity quest, trying to find out who he is had an older brother whom he was both fond of and envious of followed in his footsteps went to Harvard and got PhD in psychology (just like the brother) • Functional autonomyadult self has nothing to do with childhood self (as if they develop on parallel lines) different motivators ex. as child you played the piano out of fear of reprobation from parents as adult you play piano because you enjoy it or you like attention/recognition from peers Becomes part of self-image (how you see world and how they perceive you) Mature adults can free themselves from childhood motivational factors (ex. fear of parents) • Allport stated that we reflect both our hereditary (body type, intelligence, temperament, etc.) and our environment (hereditary factors can be shaped by environment) Genetic material is responsible for the major portion of our uniqueness • Not even identical twins have the same social environment • Allport concluded that to study personality, psychology has to deal with one person at a time because everyone is so different from one another • Allport Considered personality to be discontinuous or discrete everyone is different from one another as well as from younger versions of themselves (therefore, it is not continuous from childhood to adulthood) • Primitive biological instincts during infancy adult functioning is psychological in nature • Therefore, you basically have 2 personalities 1 for childhood, 1 for adulthood • Conscious (not unconscious), present (rather than the past), uniqueness (rather than similarities), normal (rather than abnormal) • Allport Considered personality traits to be predispositions to respond in the same or similar manner to different kinds of stimuli (ex. self-assured people will react pretty much the same way in any given situation) • Characteristic of traits: 1)Personality traits are real and exist within each of us 2)Determine behavior 3)Traits can be demonstrated empirically  one can observe someone overtime and infer the existence of certain traits within them via their responses to certain stimuli 4)Traits are interrelated sometimes overlap ex. hostility and aggression 5)Traits can vary depending on the situation ex. a mess in your parent’s house yet a neat freak in your dorm • Talked about 2 different types of traits (distinguished them from habits and attitudes) 1. Individual traits (relabeled this as personal dispositions) define your character and make you unique 2. Common traits (relabeled this as traits) shared by people from the same culture people at UM have different traits than those at FSU change overtime depending on environment (ex. 1970s was very different from the 1980s) subject to political, social, financial pressures • Habits relatively inflexible involve specific response to specific stimuli(ex. stimuli= dinner) afterwards one is compelled to smoke have relatively little impact Traits= broader because they evolve from the integration of several habits put together (ex. teaching a kid to wash hands before meal, brush teeth afterwards after a while, they become automatic and put together would be directed to the same purpose and form the trait that we would label as cleanliness) • Attitudes have some specific object of referenceex. you have an attitude towards your parents, a band, red-haired people, etc. (therefore it’s not necessarily directed towards just one person or category ex. if you’re shy, you’ll be shy towards red-haired people, bands, etc.) therefore, it is broader in scope than habits  attitudes= either positive or negative lead to you to accept/reject involves an evaluation • 6 criteria for determining maturity 1. Extension of the self participate in activities that do not revolve around oneself, but rather, around the welfare of others 2. Warm relatedness to others 2 types of warmth a. Intimacy capacity to love and be close b. Compassion mature people can have detached concern in dealing with others respectful and appreciative of individual differences 3. Self-acceptance are emotionally secure do not over react high tolerance for frustration immature people act impulsively 4. Realistic perception of reality do not distort reality do not exaggerate or diminish things 5. Self-objectification insight to own abilities and limitations can even make fun of themselves and be amused or feel ok ex. knowing that you’re bad at math and accepting it 6. Unifying philosophy of life Self-directedness in goals as a kid you’re kind of lost teen=vague ideals (ex. maybe I want to be a doctor)early 20s=better notion of what you truly want emerges includes religion Question: why self-acceptance is not about knowing your limitations and accept it (like the definitions of self-objection) • Allport says that healthy mature people are continually in a state of becoming unhealthy people’s growth has been stifled or stopped may result from something in one’s pastex. not being loved enough or being rejected by parents therefore, once in therapy, they must feel loved and wanted by those around them felt that the task of the therapist was to help individuals become aware of the source of their distorted goals (ex. parents, society, etc.) and assist them in getting through that • Unhealthy individual (one whose development has been stopped) may result from unhealthy relationship with parents (bad parenting) Catell’s goal  try and predict how a person will react in response to a certain stimulus situation • Wasn’t trying to change/modify behavior from abnormal to normal • The people he dealt with were normal he wanted to study them not treat them • Felt it was unwise/impossible to attempt to change personality before you understand fully what needs to be modified • Born in England happy childhood very competitive with older brother wrote about troubles of attaining his own freedom in development while confronting his older brother enrolled at University of London to study physics and chemistry graduated in 3 years received PhD in 1929 (study of the mind psychology) went to University of Illinois and became a research professor • Defined traits as relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are the basic structural units of personality • Classified traits in several ways a. Common: something everyone has to a certain degree ex. everyone has some measure of extroversion, some intelligence, etc. b. Unique: What distinguishes you as an individual ex. fact that you like politics or have an interest in baseball c. Ability: skills and abilities that determine how hard you work towards a particular goal ex. want to be an engineer, your skill is in math d. Temperament: Emotions, feelings ex. assertive, easygoing, irritable determine how you react to different people in one’s environment e. Dynamic: Forces that underlie our motivations and drive our behaviors ex. fear of failure (motivates you to become a 4.0 student) or fear of success f. Source: single, stable, permanent elements of our behavior Catell figured out what source traits were via Factor analysis (statistical procedure) you combine source traits together to get a surface trait g. Surface traits: composed of any number of source traits unstable and impermanent (because they combine source traits) weaken or strengthen depending one’s response to particular situations  Ex. combine anxiety, indecision, and irrationality combine to form the surface trait known as neuroticism h. Constitutional source traits that have biological origins (ex. anxiety, traits you exhibit when you drink too much alcohol, etc.) i. Environmental mold traits: mold as in clay source traits that have environmental origins ex. behaviors you acquire after hanging out with a group of people for a long time different behaviors between person that is a military officer is different from jazz musician also people raise in different neighborhoods Source Traits • 16 source traits basic factors/elements of personality mostly used them in a questionnaire and gave them to people to find out what their source traits were named the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) you pick the one that most resembles you (ex. warm, sincere, etc. or aloof, etc.) • Argues that psychologists can’t generate theories of personality without first looking at these elements Catell’s Stages of Personality Development • Proposed 6 stages in the development of personality • Very broad 1. Infancy: birth through age 6 formative period of personality (agrees with Freud) influenced by parents, siblings, experiences of toilet training, weaning social attitude developing ego, morality, etc. 2. Childhood: 6-14 like latency age few psychological problems beginning of independence away from parents increasing identification with peers 3. Adolescence: 14-23 troublesome, stressful emotional disorders and delinquency develop here conflicts around independence, self-esteem, and sex 4. Maturity 23-50 satisfying in terms of career, marriage, etc.  personality is less flexible at this stage emotional stability increases not a lot of change in terms of interest and attitudes 5. Late maturity: 50-65 physical, social, psychological changes health, vigor, physical attractiveness decline people begin to reexamine their lives during this time reexamine one’s values, search for a new self 6. Old age: 66+  adjustments to different kinds of losses ex. career, spouses, friends, status in culture may be a pervasive sense of loneliness or isolation Factor analysis • Statistical procedure that tries to isolate and identify a limited number of factors that underlie a large group of interrelated variables • Used 3 primary assessment techniques 1. L-data (life records) involves observers ratings of specific behaviors exhibited by subjects in real life settings ex. how many times they are distracted 2. Q-data involves questionnaires one rates themselves 3. T-data (personality test) objective test in which a person is responding without knowing what aspect of the behavior is being evaluated you don’t know what’s being measured ex. Rorschach, word association, TAT (thematic apperception), human figure drawing Chapter 8 Achievement motivation • Early work on achievement and motivation looked at differences in one of these needs • Henry Murray looked at differences in need for achievement he used TAT to try and see differences in achievement motivation TAT= the test with sketches, tell a story about what people are thinking and feeling, what led up to it, and what’s the outcome investigators trying to use this techniques then used an objective scoring system has provided consistent results • David McClelland explored behavioral differences between people with high need for achievement and people with low need for achievement subjects who tested high were found to be more often in middle-upper socioeconomic classes demonstrated a better memory for uncompleted tasks more likely to volunteer or serve as subjects in psychological research more resistant to peer pressure and less conforming than those testing in low need for achievement more likely to attend college, get better grades, be more involved much more likely to cheat on exams in certain situations got along better with older people(why???) were in greater physical health high in need for achievement people believed that certain tasks would just be easier for them (confidence) anxiety helps them with cognitive tasks (impairs performance for low- need for achievement people) do same as low need achievement people ex. repetitive chore was given, cross out all the letter e’s and o’s in the document (found that subjects high and low in need for achievement scored the same performance ways achievement motive MUST be activated for former to do better than the lattertherefore, they will choose a career that satisfies this) • Allport did research on expressive behavior behavior that expresses our personality traits also looked at coping behavior more thought out behavior with purpose, consciously planned and carried out (ex. coming to class today) coping behavior is determined by specific needs and directed towards making change in our environment expressive behavior=more spontaneous and reflects basic aspects of our personality (difficult to change b/c it does not have a purpose, it’s just part of who we are • Ex. at a lecture, speaker communicates with audience on 2 levels 1. What you plan on saying to audience (coping behavior) 2. Informal, unplanned speaker’s movements, gestures, mannerisms, vocal inflections ex. pacing, fidgeting, speaking quickly (expressive behavior) these spontaneous behaviors express elements of personality • Studying expressive behavior gave individuals different tasks to perform found high level of consistency in expressive behavior of voice, hand-writing, posture, and gestures  from theses expressive behaviors, he deducted the existence of traits such as introversion and extroversion • Looking at video recordings, listening to radio, tells you things about personality • Compelling body of evidence gathered by research depicts how some people can form reliable expressions of strangers based solely on facial expressions ex. observers accurately identified anxiety from individuals in film ex2. Accurate assessment made by people looking at photo of people they had never met (such observations often coincided with the observations made by people whom had known the subjects of the photo for weeks) • Paul Elkman looks at facial expressions you consistently see 7 emotions in people’s faces: 1. Anger 2. Contempt 3. Disgust 4. Fear 5. Sadness 6. Surprise 7. Happiness • The Big 5 factors of personality at least 4 of these factors are characterized solely in the person’s facial expression  Ex. one of the big 5 is agreeableness show in laughter  Ex. another one of the 5 is extroversion shown in smiles, laughter, other factors of enjoyment or amusement • 1950’s physicians were noting that their heart attack patients differed from their other patients they were active an driven (more so than those without heart problems) identified this dimension as the coronary prone behavior pattern consisted of behaviors part of an overall pattern distinguished type A/B personalities 1. Type A: Driven, successful, enjoy power, get angry really easily, hate inefficiency,
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