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PSY 230 Child & Adolescent Development Final Exam Guide

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PSY 230

PSY230 Final Exam Study GuideChapter 1 Studying Child Development 5 perspectives biological psychodynamic learning cognitivedevelopmental contextual Biological perspective Intellectual personality physicalmotor development are all rooted in biology Maturational theory Development is a natural unfolding of the specificprearranged biological plan Ethological theory Views development from an evolutionary perspective Behaviors are adaptive have survival value Supports theory of critical periods Critical period Stage in development where specific type of learning takes place that may be impossible otherwise Psychodynamic perspective Development largely determined by how well ppl resolve life conflictsdiff ages Id Ego Superego Early experiences have enduring effects on childrens development Children experience conflict btwn what they want to dowhat they should do Psychosocial theory Erikson Development consists of a sequence of stages defined by a unique crisis How one confronts a crisis will determine later developmentsuccess dealing with crises Learning perspective Operant conditioning based on punishmentreinforcement Children also learn through imitationobservational learning Social Cognitive Theory Children are more likely to imitate people who appear successful or are rewarded Children look to others to determine what is acceptable behavior Albert Bandura social cognitive theoryself efficacy Social cognitive children actively interpret events CognitiveDevelopmental perspective Focuses on how children thinkhow thinking changes as they grow Jean Piaget Children naturally try to make sense of their world Childrens theories are tested by everyday experiences Children radically revise their theoriesage 2 712 making 4 distinct stages in development Contextual perspective Ecological systems affect childrens development Culture The knowledge attitudesbehavior associated w a group of people Vygotsky cultural context of learning The fundamental aim of all societies is to enable children to acquire essential cultural valuesskills ResearchMethods Systemic observation Observingrecording childrens actions Selfreports childrens answers to questions about the topic of interest Response bias selecting the socially appropriate answer vs the truth Populations broad groups of children Field experiment Researcher manipulates independent variables in natural settings to create results more representative of behavior in realworld settings Quasiexperiment Examines impact of independent variable on groups not randomly selectedassigned Microgenetic study Longitudinal design consisting of testing children over days or weeksexamining change directly as it occurs Metaanalysis Researchers synthesize results of many studies to estimate relationships btwn variables Disadvantages of longitudinal studies Expensive Timeconsuming Subject dropout Repeated testing influences behavior Disadvantages of crosssectional studies Compares diff children Makes assumptions about development Cohort effects Disadvantages of longitudinalsequential studies Timeconsuming Complex to conductanalyze Disadvantages of experimental method Ethical issues may be transformed into an intervention program to meet guidelines Some individual variables cant be controlled age gender weather etc Identifying direction of effect IE not knowing whether watching violent shows causes aggression or if those who watch are innately more aggressive Consequences of mistaken correlations IE Measles vaccines correlating w autism Results in wasting money debunking it Health issues kids are unvaccinated Misinformation to the public Correlations may point downstill be positive as long as x moves in the same direction as y Some correlations have a third variable involved IE More firetrucks present at fires correlates w more deaths bc of the third variable the size of the large fire Cohort effect The phenomenon whereby a group of people are influenced by historical forces or events unique to the time andor place in which they live
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