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PSY 240 Midterm: ABNORMAL SG3

9 Pages

Course Code
PSY 240

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Substance Effects Alcohol Physical Intoxication Inhibitory centers are depressed Motor Coordination: slurred speech Reaction time is slowed Confusion Ability to make judgments is reduced Vision & hearing affected Neurochemical (increased) GABA (inhibitory)- anxiety Glutamate (excitatory)- learning & memory-> blackout Serotonin- sleeping & eating -> alcohol cravings Cocaine Physical Small amounts: • Increase alertness, blood pressure & pulse • Produce euphoria • Insomnia • Loss of appetite Blunted affect: reduction in the intensity of an individual's emotional response Paranoia Exaggerated fears of being caught or having cocaine stolen Dependence -> Highly addictive, but develops slowly Withdrawal -> Boredom, apathy, anhedonia Marijuana With heavy use: Mood swings + anxiety, paranoia, dizziness, hallucinations Anabolic Steroids Increased body mass -> to enhance performance and size Alcohol Dependence Treatments Antagonistic Treatment Block/counteract the effects of psychoactive drugs Acomprosate-alcohol *Should be given after over withdrawal symptoms -> reduce cravings - Psychosocial interventions + highly motivated people = effective Aversive Treatment-Antabuse *Makes ingesting the abuse substance unpleasant Prevents breakup of acetaldehyde in alcohol -> causing a sickening feeling PROBLEM: noncompliance, must be motivating For smoking: silver nitrate Inpatient Facilities Gets through initial withdrawal period More supportive therapy Just as effective as outpatient therapies, but $$$ Alcoholics Anonymous FOUNDATION: alcoholism is a disease and alcoholics must acknowledge their addiction to alcohol and its destructive power over them *Hard to measure true success Social support by group meetings 12 Steps: prayer & god SMART Recovery CB principles- rational analysis and action Goal of abstinence; emphasizes personal choice & responsibility Considers alcohol as temporary condition Component Treatment Individual & group therapy Aversion Therapy: substance + something unpleasant (conditioning model) Covert Sensitization: negative associations by imagining unpleasant scenes Contingency Management: both decide behaviors to change and decide reinforcers Community Reinforcement: Friend, identify antecedents & consequences, recreation to substitute Relapse Prevention: identify high risk & coping mechs Personality Disorders Cluster A Paranoid Personality Disorder Excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others, without any justification Odd/eccentric Schizoid Personality Disorder Social & interpersonal deficits with acute disorders (potential precursor to schizophrenia) Socially isolated, suspicious, with odd beliefs Think everyone is talking about them Cluster B Antisocial Personality Disorder Disregard/violation of others Irresponsible, impulsive, deceitful Dramatic, emotional, Superficial charm & grandiose sense of self worth erractic Borderline Personality Disorder Instability of interpersonal relations; control over impulses (24-74% comorbid w/ depression) Fear of abandonment Low self-image, self-mutilation, suicidal Histrionic Personality Disorder Excessive emotion & attention seeking (common in females) Overly dramatic, sexually provocative, impulsive, appearance focused, vague superficial speech Narcissistic Personality Disorder Patterns of grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy Lack of sensitivity & compassion, arrogant Cluster C Avoidant Personality Disorder Social inhibition, inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation Avoid relationships & interpersonally anxious Anxious/fearful Dependent Personality Disorder Excessive need to be taken care of = clinging & fear of separation High need of reassurance OCD Preoccupied with orderliness, perfection, control, flexibility, openness Impulse & Conduct Disorders: Behavioral and emotional dysregulation involving the violation of rights of others or conflict with norms or authorities. Linked to disinhibition and somewhat to negative affectivity Gambling Disorder ADDICTIVE: urges, dependence & withdrawal Denial, continuing optimism, interferes with effective treatment Oppositional Defiant Disorder Irritable, argumentative, & defiant- often towards authority Conduct Disorder Violation of rights of others Forces sexual activity, arson, deceitful Limited prosocial emotion; lack of remorse Intermittent Explosive Disorder Episodes of aggression and destruction Bio causes: influence of serotonin, norepinephrine, & testosterone Kleptomania Stealing things Sexual Disorders/Paraphilias Disorder Symptoms Causes Treatment Male Hypoactive Sexual - Little interest in sexual activity Biological Contributions Education Desire Disorder - Decreased frequency in - Physical & Medical Conditions: - How to have sex & expectations masturbation, sexual fantasies, reduce sensitivity - Changing deep-seated myths Female Sexual Desire & intercourse - Chronic Illness - Increasing communication Arousal Disorder - Prescription Meds: affect desire & - Difficulty getting aroused arousal Psychosocial Treatments Erectile Disorder - Difficulty achieving or maintaining a - Alcohol & Drugs: CNS suppressants, - Sensate focus rigid erection that is sufficient for harder for men to achieve erection Non-genital exploration successful sexual activity and women lubrication Genital exploration - Common in older men Non-genital pleasuring Psychological Simultaneous pleasuring Viagra, etc + CBT - Distraction: by something nonsexual - Masturbation Vasodilating Drug Injection - Lack of info or knowledge - Squeeze Technique (papverine) - Anxiety: excitement vs. evaluation (Premature ej): squeeze penis Prosthesis/implants/surgery Evaluating oneself & performance near the top of the head to Vacuum device therapy: traps blood decrease arousal, teaches control in penis Social Female Orgasmic Disorder -Orgasm is rare or extremely delayed - Erotophobia: afraid/threatened by Medical Treatment Delayed Ejaculation - Male ejaculation is absent, sex infrequent, or extremely delayed Learned in childhood Premature Ejaculaton - Ejaculating less than 1 minute after - Traumatic experience: rape/abuse beginning penile-vaginal sex and - Poor interpersonal relationships before the man wishes - Lack of communication: to say what is needed sexually SSRI’s sometimes - Negative scripts: restrictive attitudes Vaginismus - Involuntary tightening of outer Social Relations Psychosocial Treatment vaginal muscles during attempted - Inability to form relationships with - Covert sensitization: imagine penetration appropriate people for sexual activity arousing images with reasons
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