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Abnormal Psychology ADDITIONAL NOTES PART 1 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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PSY 240
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Physical Disorders and Health Psychology: • PsychologicalApproaches o Behavioral medicine:  Knowledge derived from behavioral science is applied to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems  Interdisciplinary (psychologists, physicians, health professionals) o Health psychology  Subfield of behavioral medicine  Not interdisciplinary  Study psychological factors that are important to the promotion and maintenance of health; analyze and recommend improvements in health- care systems and heath policy formation within the discipline of psychology • DSM 5 and Physical Disorders o Physical disorders are coded in a diagnosis if they related to the treatment issue • The Influence of Psychological and Social Factors: o 2 Primary paths  Psychological factors influence  Behavior Patters (seatbelt, smoking, etc) Things that Cause Changes in Psychology and Physical Disorders: A. Stress:  Nature of Stress o Stress: Physiological response of an individual o Stressor: Event that evokes the stress response o Variability: Stress responses vary from person to person  Hans Selye Stress Response & the GeneralAdaptation Syndrome o Phase 1 – Alarm response  sympathetic arousal o Phase 2 – Resistance  mobilized coping and action o Phase 3 – Exhaustion  Chronic stress, permanent damage  SNS activation  Neuromodulators and neuropeptides o CRF (corticotrophin releasing factor)  HPAaxis activation (recall from Mood Disorders) o Limbic system activation  Hippocampus  Chronic stress may damage cells in the hippocampus, thus maintaining the HPA loop o PTSD o Dementia  Psychosocial Vulnerabilities o Nature of stressors o Perceived uncontrollability  Self-efficacy: one’s perceptions of this are critical in determining response and effects of situations o Low social support o Negative affect  Experience of threats and challenges B. Immune System  Stress lowers functioning of immune system  Immune system identifies and eliminates i. Antigens ii. Damaged/aberrant body cells  Immune system works through Leukocytes (WBCs) i. Microphages (first line of defense) ii. Lymphocytes 1. Humoral/B cells 2. Cellular/T cells  Immune disease needs proper balance of T cell types i. Too many T4 cells => over-activity (auto immune disease) 1. Attacks normal body cells ii. Too few T4 cells => lowered activity 1. “Opportunistic” infections  Psychoneuroimmunology i. Study of psychological factors on immune response C. HIV/AIDS  Course of HIV is variable along these CDC stages i. Early ~1000 T4 cells/cmm ii. Middle ~500 T4 cells/cmm iii. AIDS if any of 1. 1 of 42 opportunistic infections, e.g. Kaposi’s sarcoma, toxoplasmosis 2. T4 count < 200cells/µl 3. has hard to treat tuberculosis, or recurrent pneumonia 4. invasive cervical cancer  Targets i. “Prefers” helper t4 cells ii. Also “likes” neurons in the brain  HAART i. Powerful, but not a cure ii. Severe side effects  Stress of diagnosis can be devastating  Exacerbation of AIDS progression i. High stress ii. Low social support  Goals: i. Reduce stress ii. Boost immune system  Outcomes: i. Increased T-helper cells ii. Lower antibodies iii. Enhanced psychological adjustment D. Cancer:  Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body  Psychosocial factors, such as marital disruption, chronic depression, low social support, and high stress, have been linked with differential cancer onset, but these findings are fairly inconsistent  More evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and cancer progression o Positive factors, such as social support and optimism may contribute to a longer survival o Negative coping factors, such as use of depressive coping mechanisms, may contrib
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