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SOC 368 (4)
Midterm

Test 2 STUDY GUIDE.docx

11 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 368
Professor
Amy Neilsen

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STUDY GUIDE Questions from lecture 1. General questions from the mini-series, “The Corner” based on the thinking points items. 2. What is the NCVS? Where do the data come from? What types of data does this system provide? What are the strengths of the NCVS? Weaknesses? • National Crime Victimization Survey (began in 1972 as alternative source of crime data because of the weaknesses of the UCR) • Administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics in conjunction with US Census Bureau • Nationally representative sample of household population (multistage probability sample) of 80,000 (40,000 households) representing 2.5 million who live in households • Respondents are 12+ • Respondents asked about victimization experiences in the past 6 months (most people have not been the victim of crime in the past 6months especially violent crime) • Remain in sample for 3 years • Personal victimization (all Part I violent crimes except homicide: aggravated assault, robbery, rape + simple assaults) • Household victimization for property crimes • Definitions of crimes are similar to but not identical to those used in UCR • Obtain information about o Number of victims o Victim characteristics (including income) o Offender characteristics (when known) o Whether reported to the police (and reasons) o Other incident characteristics • Strengths o Information on “dark figure” of crime o Victim and offender information (including limited ethnicity information) o Reasons for reporting or not o Information on social class (household income) • Weaknesses o Not all crimes reported o Over/under-reporting o Telescoping: say incident happened within past 6 months when it actually occurred prior 3. What are self-reports? Where do the data come from? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this type of data? • Ask individuals about crimes they have committed • Demographic characteristics of offenders • Able to collect data to allow theory testing (micro-level theories) on social and psychological processes • Numerous surveys (vary tremendously) o Populations covered (national, local, etc.) o Populations covered (general, school based, prison, etc.) o Kinds of information will be very different • Data collected are generally considered to be reliable and valid but not equally across demographics • Typically tapping minor crimes (little violence) • Do not use much in studying violence 4. What is ethnographic research? What type of information do such studies provide? • Type of qualitative research • In-depth and detailed understanding • Field work, in depth interviews, etc. • Understanding from point of view of actual participants • Nature of crime • Results are not generalizable to other settings • Anderson book is example of ethnographic research- why kids engage in violence 5. What are the four Part I violent crimes? Which occurs most frequently? Least frequently? How does the number of crimes known to the police compare for the Part I violent and property crimes? • Part I Violent crimes: homicide, aggravated assault, rape, robbery • Most frequent Part I Violent crime:Aggravated assault • Least frequent Part I Violent crime: Homicide • Part I Violent crimes make up 12% known to police (minority); Part I Property crimes make up 88% known to police (vast majority) 6. What crime accounts for the largest percentage of all arrests every year? What percent of arrests do part I violent crimes comprise? What is the largest category of arrests for violent crime? • Largest percentage of all arrests every year: Drug abuse violations • Part I Violent Crimes are only 4% of arrests • Largest category of arrests for violent crime: simple assaults 7. Approximately what percentage of violent crimes is cleared? Which crime has the highest clearance rates? Which has the lowest? • 47.2% Violent crimes are cleared • Homicide has the highest clearance rates • Robbery has the lowest clearance rates 8. What is the “dark figure” of crime? How does the NCVS information for aggravated assault, rape and robbery compare with those from the UCR? According to the NCVS, approximately what percentage of violent crimes is reported to police? • Dark figure of crime: the gap between the actual amount of crime committed and the amount of crime reported to the police • NCVS information for aggravated assault about the same as UCR, but for Rape and Robbery the numbers are substantially higher • 51% of violent crimes reported to the police 9. For Part I violent crimes overall, what areas have the highest rates? Are most violent crimes inter-racial or intra-racial? When we know this information, are most violent crimes committed by strangers or non-strangers? How does this vary for males and females? Of non-strangers group, who commits the vast majority of violent offenses? • For Part I Violent Crimes, the south and cities/metropolitan areas have the highest rates • Most violent crimes are intra-racial • Most violent crimes committed by non-strangers • Females are more likely to be victimized by non-strangers and males are more likely to be victimized by strangers • Of non-stranger groups, friends/acquaintances commit the vast majority of violent offenses 10. How does violent crime (offending and victimization) vary by gender, age group, and race/ethnicity? • Offending- more likely with the following factors: young, black, male • Victimization- more likely with the following factors: young, black, male 11. For homicide, which type of weapon is used the most? What is the largest single (specified) category of homicide motives? How do drug-related and gang-related incidents rate (e.g., small proportions?) • Weapon used the most in homicide: guns • Larges category of homicide motives: argument • How do drug- related and gang-related incidents rate: 16% combined 12. For robberies, what comprises the major type of offense? Approximately how much is the value taken in the average robbery? For aggravated assaults and robberies, what weapons are most often used? • Most common robberies on the street • Average value taken: $1,239 • For aggravated assaults and robberies weapons most often used: other including blunt objects 13. For hate crimes, what is the single largest motivation (or source of bias)? What type of offense is committed the most among both property and violent offenses? Among just the violent offenses? • Hate crimes single largest motivation/bias: race • Offense committed the most: destruction • Violent offense committed the most: intimidation 14. For school violence, how does non-lethal violence incidence compare in school versus other settings? Are either suicide or homicide events that occur frequently in school, per the data? Notably, how do the numbers of deaths from school violence compare to those from child maltreatment? • Non-lethal violence incidence are higher at school vs. other settings • Only 17.1% homicide in school, only 7.1 suicide in school (both low) • Deaths from child maltreatment MUCH higher than deaths from school violence 15. Approximately what are the rates of child maltreatment? When considered in terms of percentages, what is the largest type of child maltreatment? • Rates of child maltreatment: estimated 695,000 children victims in 2010 which is 9.2/1,000 • Largest type of child maltreatment: neglect 16. What do we mean by the social context of violence? What are the three necessary elements for violence to occur? What are the elements of offender motivations Miethe and Meier (handout) discuss? What are the victim characteristics that are important? What are the elements or characteristics of locations that are important? (be sure to be able to specify and define some characteristics under each category). • Social context: a micro-environment with physical and social dimensions, dealing with things in the immediate setting • Three necessary elements for violence: 1. Motivated offenders 2. Available victims 3. Facilitating environment (Routine activities theory- lack of capable guardians) • Elements of offender motivations 1. Economic disadvantage- being poor, lacking good education 2. Weak social bonds- to society, conventional institutions/people (bonds prevent offending) 3. Pro-crime values- make crime acceptable (not against crime) 4. Psychological/biological attributes: in small % of cases (vast majority of people who commit violence don't have biological/psychological problems) 5. Generalized needs- money, sex. Excitement 6. Non-criminal alternatives- lack of access to jobs that pay enough to survive • Jacobs and Wright reading findings are consistent with many of theses areas (with the exception of biological/psychological) • Victim characteristics 1. Proximity- to the offender (physically) 2. Exposure- to high crime situations 3. Attractiveness- of target; look easy to victimize? (Especially for predatory type of crime like robbery) 4. Guardianship- absence of anyone to intervene • Elements/characteristic of locations 1. Physical Location a. Certain locations have higher violence rates b. “hot spots” high concentrations of crime c. violence tends to be concentrated in/around some locations d. physical space: characteristics of location (e.g. escape route) e. darkness: provides cover f. tempo, pace, rhythm: activity periods and type of traffic (ex: burglary occurs mostly in lull, when no one is around) g. history: events in the past in location 2. Interpersonal Relationship a. Much violence (except robbery involves people who know each other especially for females) b. Stranger violence: may be more likely to be planned 3. Behavioral setting: important for offender motivations, victim availability, and guardianship a. Home: family members and intimates, less guardianship, access to weapons b. School: jealously and peer pressure, people who are acquainted, preventative measures such as police and metal detectors c. Work: may be exposed to motivated offenders (e.g. convenience stores) d. Leisure: fewer social controls, often alcohol present e. Presence of bystanders: related to guardianship, raises the stakes, Luckenbill discusses 3 types (hostile, neutral, supportive) Questions from Readings 1. Based on Luckenbill, what are the general steps leading to homicide? That is, what were some general characteristics in how most incidents escalated into those ending in death? What are “character contests” and what is the importance of “face”? What roles did the audience play? What does Luckenbill mean by “victim-precipitated” homicides? Criminal Homicide as a Situated Transaction General Characteristics in how most incidents escalate into those ending in death • Murder was the culmination of an interchange between an offender and victim (a collective transaction) • Situated transaction in which participants develop particular roles, each shaped by the others and instrumental in some way to the f
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