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TAL 330 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Rei, Least Restrictive Environment, Anxiety And Depression Association Of America

Teaching and Learning
Course Code
TAL 330
Study Guide

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Quiz 2 Review!
History of Sp.Ed.!
!!1890s & early 1900s schools routinely excluded students with disabilities from attending!
!!1954 Brown vs. Board of Education:!
!!Reasoned it unlawful to discriminate against a group for arbitrary reasons!
!!Characterized education as a fundamental function of the gvt to be afforded
equally to all citizens!
!!Set precedent for movements & legislation affording education to individuals w.
special needs!
!!1960s Civil Rights Movement included activism for ppl with special needs!
!!1972 Penn. Association for Retarded Children vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania!
!!Free public education to all students with disabilities age 6-21!
!!Regardless of significance of needs!
!!Most integrated environment!
!!"Child-find" system!
!!Serve preschoolers w. disabilities!
!!Parent involvement!
!!1972, 1979 Larry P. vs. Riles!
!!AA students may not be placed in sp.ed. based on cultural/racial bias!
!!School officials must develop objective assessment process for placing students!
!!(Cali) prohibits use of IQ tests to place AA students in mild sp.ed. classes!
!!1982 Hendrick Hudson Central School District vs. Rowley!
!!First supreme court interpretation of PL 94-142!
!!Appropriate education deemed not synonymous with optimal education
!!Education may not necessarily allow for maximum possible achievement!
!!1989 Daniel R.R. vs. State Board of Education!
!!Preference for integrated placement viewed as secondary to need for appropriate
!!Established 2-prong test for compliance w. LRE!
!!Determine if student makes satisfactory progress/achievement in gen.ed.
classroom with support!
!!Determine whether student has been integrated to maximum extent
PL 94-142 (1975) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)!
!1.!Free & appropriate public education (FAPE)!
Zero rejection policy!
!1.!Least restrictive environment (LRE)!
!2.!Individualized education program (IEP)!
!3.!Procedural due process!
Confidentiality, legal representation, right to impartial hearing, notification of
changes in child's IEP, etc.!
!1.!Nondiscriminatory assessment!
Multidisciplinary team must run multiple assessments not racially or culturally
!1.!Parental participation/"Parent's Law"!
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Requires parents' full participation in planning child's education!
!!Side notes:!
!!Did not require services for preschool children#
Offered financial grants for services & assessment on preschool children!
!!Moved from census count to child count of actual # of student with disabilities
(locate & serve)!
PL 101-336 (1990) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)!
!!Extends beyond disabilities, embraces individuals with AIDS, substance abuse survivors,
ppl with cosmetic disfigurements, etc.!
!!Covers any person with an impairment that substantially limits life activity!
!!Protects civil rights in employment, transportation, telecommunications, etc.!
!!Requires that public facilities are accessible!
IDEIA 2004 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act)!
!!Upgraded from just providing special education services to focus on improving
educational performance of students!
!!Aligning sp.ed. Services with larger national school improvement efforts (reform in ed.)!
!!Modified criteria for identifying disabilities, advanced assessments & responses
(introduction of RTI)!
!!Multiyear IEPs & more relaxed participation requirements!
!!Transition planning in IEPs to cover individual's lifespan!
!!Functional rather than categorical law for determining disability:!
!!Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities!
!!Record of such impairment!
!!Regarded by others as having impairment!
!!Individuals ineligible for special education under IDEA still may qualify for assistance/
accommodations under section 504!
2008 Americans with Disabilities Act Amendment (ADAA)!
!!Revised a broader definition of disability/Expanded definition of "major life activities"!
!!Extended protections to more individuals!
!!Pupils not regarded as disabled if it only lasts for 6 months or less!
Reform in Education!
!!Movement toward educational accountability & reform!
!!Performance-based standards!
!!Linking student success with teacher qualification!
!!Result of NCLB!
!!High-stakes testing!
!!Rigorous standards imposed on teachers & aides!
!!Greater attention on aligning IEPs with general content standards!
!!2001 No Child Left Behind Act!
!!All pupils expected to demonstrate proficiency in math, reading & science!
!!Requires annual testing & yearly progress in schools!
!!Scores aggregated/grouped according to disability, SES, race, ethnicity, &
English proficiency!
!!Struggling schools provided w. supplementary resources & required to offer
tutoring, after-school classes, summer programs, etc.!
Steps to placement in special ed.:!
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