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Classical Mythology Notes for the Final Exam

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CLAS 160D2
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PART I: TERMS and NAMES Topography - the method of creating how rome used to be. temples, forums, etc... Marble Plan - economic plan that romans used. Amassive marble map of ancient Rome, created under the emperor Septimius Severus between 203 and 211, types of re-creations- life size models templum - area in the sky marked for the austices aedes- house ara- alter area- open space used for looking at the sky uses of temples-government uses, meeting places for senate, offices buildings for consuls Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus- early temple of rome on the Capitoline- roman forum built in between palatine and capitoline Roman Forum (Forum Romanum)-civic center to rome, added to/rebuilt several times, contained most major temples along via sacra via Sacra- Contained most of the major temples along the via Sacra Temple of Saturn-vowed in 498 bce, lower level housed aerarium(treasury),used as offices for quaestors Temple of Divus Vespasian and Titus-temple where caesar was cremated and augustus considered a god so he made a temple for him Temple of Concordia-after conflict of the orders Rostrum Temple of Vesta-housed wills of senators,palladium(stone gfrom troy that aneaus brought to beat the greeks) Temple of Castor (and Pollux)- built after battle of lake regillius palladium-stone from troy Rex Sacrorum-remains of monarchy, maximus and rex sacrorum, home of rex sacrorum regia-housed shields of salii, official calender and annales BasilicaAemilia- public building in the forum Basilica Julia-public building in the forum Curia- originally hostilia, after the monarchy became something like the senate carcer- monuments in the forum, room for 2 people lacus Curtius-Rome’s enemy whose horse dies in a shadow lake or the ground opens up to the underworld and the Romans ask their prophets and sears who tell them to throw their valuables into pit which Curtius commits suicide Forum Julium- Temple of Venus Genetrix-Dedicated in 46 BC in the Forum of Caesar,Atufa and concrete podium with 3 standing columns now, vowed the temple if successful in his battles, senate dislikes JC because of his behaviour here. aerarium- name given to the public treasury. Praetorian Guard (cohortes praetoriae)-Aforce of bodyguards. cohortes urbanae (city force)-created byAugustus to counterbalance the enormous power of the Praetorian Guard in the city of Rome and serve as a police force. cohortes vigilum (city watch)-were the firefighters and police ofAncient Rome. delatores-private citizens investigated crimes for a fee. annonae-a Roman imperial official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome. congiaria-Emperors took over these duties, (gifts of money) donativa-irregular payments to soldiers, esp. Praetorian Guard-Emperor Galba alimenta-funds for children and orphans vicus-neighborhoods, augustus assigned 14 regions Servian Walls-was a defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome in the early 4th century BCE. Aurelian Walls-city walls built between 271 and 275 in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus. Caesar Augustus princeps-chief senator divi filius (son of the god)-o DIVIFPATERPATRIAE CAESARAUGUSTUS =Song of the god, Father of the Country Horologium- clock Ara Pacis Augustae- alter of Peace byAugustus Mausoleum ofAugustus- Built along the via Flaminia entering Rome form the North · Derived from Etruscan tombs and Hellenistic royal tombs · Invokes image of Augustus as founder of a dynasty · Entrance originally flanked by tablets containing the Res Gestae Res Gestae DiviAugusti- Written byAugustus in the last year of his life, to be displayed in front of Mausoleum on two bronze tablets · Found in Ancyra in Greek and Latin · Augustus informs posterity how to view his life and rule · Gives us information about what was seen as essential to being a “good” emperor · Notable omissions and re-castings of history Temple of Apollo on the Palatine- -On Palatine Hill -Greek and Latin Library -Only podium and flight of steps remain today Temple of Jupiter Tonans o Built byAugustus on the Capitoline o Vowed byAugustus after he was nearly struck by lightning o Small but elaborate temple o Augustus dream o Bells installed-jupiter tonans was the ianitor of Jupiter optimus maximus Forum of Augustus- Could not get everyone to see- Forum ofAugustus is not symmetrical o Additional space for legal courts o Continues ideas of forum of Julius Caesar o Dominated by temple of mars ultor (avenger) o Built on augustus own land- no imerpial eminent domain o Could not get everyone to sell-forum ofAugustus is not symmetrical o Used for law courts o Stambaugh-like atrium of rome o Imagines of Augustus o Received embassies o Oath of obedience to august us o Deliberations on war o Governors sent to provinces o Toga virilis ceremonies –when a young man comes of age (toga of manhood) Temple of Mars Ultor-Temple dedicated to the God of War inAugustus' Forum, built for avenger of battle of Philippi, used to deliberate war and award triumphs. pietas- religious duty, duty for country and family Nero- quinquennium Neronis-Five “good” years of rule DomusAurea-palace Baths of Nero- o Baths and gym of nero 60-64 CE o Single complex o For neronia o Gym struck by lightning burned down-including gigantic bronze statue of nero (ann 15.22) o Campus martius near baths of Agrippa o 190m by 120m Neronia-neronia(occured in 60 and 65 discontinued after neros death), greek competition- traditional athletic events including poetry recitation and races “meta-theatrics”- o Reality echoes make believe o Death of britannicus o Nero and Agrippina o Death ofAgrippina Agrippina the Elder Great Fire of 64 CE-Nero believed to have started this fire in 64, burned for 6 days straight, golden house was built in the centre, Christians were blamed. Features of Domus Aurea- rotating dining room, baths, giant, Artificial Lake- lake built in the palace grounds Colossal statue of Nero-statue of nero built at entrence to palace, could be seen from many parts of city Esquiline Wing-octogonal room, lit by “eye” at top of room Temple of Divus Claudius-· Begun by Nero- solidifying power · Nero stopped work on the temple · Finished by Vespasian · Policy of ‘deconstructing Nero’ · Finishing unfinished projects, covering over Domus Aurea (looted by the Flavian Emperors) balnea-Public Baths were also called. thermae-Public Baths were also called. odyterium – changing room calidarium – hot room tepidarium – warm room frigidarium – cold room natatio – cold swimming pools palaestra – wrestling and workout area hypocaust-Slaves heat large base of water and tiles with fire that produces hot air Baths ofAgrippa Baths of Nero Baths of Titus Baths of Trajan Baths of Caracalla-- Built by Emperor Caracalla, they were the largest thermae (heated baths)in the world when completed in 217AD Baths of Diocletian - built c 300 CE - only central hall housing frigidarium remains - floor is added - refinished by michealangelo Flavian Emperors Vespasian-Ruler 6
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