34 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Arizona
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Chapter 9 & 10 Review Key Terms from Lecture Accessibility – refers to the claim by some theorists that memories are actually not forgotten, rather they become inaccessible. In other words, there is a failure in retrieving the memory rather than a loss of memory trace. Availability – refers to the claim by some theorists that memories are, in fact, forgotten due to permanent loss of the memory trace, or at least damage to it, making it unavailable. Forgetting curve – a graphical depiction showing the rapid initial drop in retention of information in memory followed by a relatively stable leveling off of information retained. The forgetting curve was first demonstrated by Ebbinghaus’ method of savings in recall ability of nonsense syllables. Jost’s law of forgetting – if two memory traces are equally strong at a given time, then the older of the two will be more resistant to further forgetting. Permastore – theoretical permanent storage facility for information that is well learned, as proposed by Bahrick and Phelps (1984). After an initial period of forgetting, memories are stable and remain in store forever. Trace decay – the gradual weakening of memories resulting from the mere passage of time. Cue-overload principle – interference due to a cue becoming associated with too many things, making accessibility of a specific memory more difficult. Interference – the disruption in memory retrieval ability due to the presence of related memories being tied to the same or similar cues. Proactive interference – occurs when old or previously learned information interferes with memory for new information. For example, studying for a psychopharmacology exam immediately after studying for biopsychology may result in proactive interference of information. Retroactive interference – occurs when newly learned information interferes with memory for old or previously learned information. For example, once a new telephone number is memorized it may interfere with memory for the old telephone number. Repression – forgetting that occurs without conscious awareness. Suppression – forgetting that occurs under conscious control, i.e., an intentional, goal-directed forgetting of memories. Psychogenic amnesia – forgetting the time period surrounding an anxiety-provoking event. Memory loss usually lasts hours to weeks and is due to psychological reasons. It is neither accidental nor consciously intended. Retrieval inhibition hypothesis – hypothesis that first-list items are temporarily inhibited in order to better remember the second-list items. However, first-list items are not forgotten. Evidence for the availability of the memories for the first-list items comes from the observation that participants are still able to recognize items from the first list despite not being able to recall them, suggesting a problem of accessibility rather than availability. Context-shift hypothesis – essentially a form of context-dependent memory in which the mental context is changed between study of list 1 items and list 2 items, resulting in poorer recall of list 1 items. Reminiscence – term used by Ballard (1913) to describe the phenomenon observed when one gradually becomes able to remember once forgotten material. Hypermnesia – refers to the improvement in recall of material following repeated testing sessions on the same material. It is most noticeable during free recall, but also occurs during cued recall and recognition tests. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - Long-lasting reaction to severely stressful event, often a single event that triggers reaction. Key Concepts from Lecture 1. Availability vs. Accessibility Debate Availability Accessibility – Memory IS forgotten. – Memory is NOT forgotten. – Permanent loss of memory trace. – Not necessarily a loss of memory trace. – Cues will not help retrieval. – Good cues will lead to retrieval. 2. Jost’s law of forgetting a. States that if two memory traces are equally strong at a given time, then the older of the two will be more resistant to further forgetting. b. Characterized by the “forgetting curve.” 3. Forgetting curves demonstrated with many different types of information. a. Nonsense syllables (Ebbinghaus, 1913). b. Semantic information, e.g., a foreign language (Bahrick, 1984). c. Public events (Meeter, Murre, & Janssen, 2005). d. Classmates (Bahrick, Bahrick, & Wittlinger, 1975). - Regardless of the type of information being tested, the general shape of the curve (sharp decrease followed by leveling off and stabilization) remained remarkably similar to Ebbinghaus’ (1913) original forgetting curve. - Forgetting curves are particularly robust for recall but not recognition. - Led to the suggestion by Bahrick and Phelps (1984) that information that is well learned to begin with is less susceptible to forgetting. They also noted that after initial forgetting, the remaining information seemed to be in a theoretical permanent storage facility called a permastore. 4. Linton’s (1975) autobiographical diary a. Linton wrote in her diary daily for 5 years and tested herself over 6 years. b. Events from the diary were then randomly selected and tested. c. She noticed that multiple retrievals resulted in increased likelihood of retention. d. This suggests that the more the information is retrieved, the more “permanent” the information becomes. 100 e l 80 c 1 test r 60 s 2 tests t 40 3 tests t e 4+ tests r 20 P 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Years after event Implications: The more you test yourself, the stronger the memory and the less likely it is to be forgotten. 5. Flashbulb memories a. Very strong memories for events (although not always accurate), typically involving a lot of emotion. b. Can be remembered for a lifetime. c. Suggests that emotion may play a significant role in long-term storage of information. 6. Skills a. Skills such as riding a bicycle or playing a musical instrument seem to show no signs of forgetting. b. Possible explanations for this permanence: i. Overlearning ii. Automatization of the behaviors 7. Forgetting a. Interference i. The more related the memories, the more forgetting due to interference. ii. Cue-overload principle – multiple memories that are associated with a single cue end up competing for retrieval. iii. Retroactive interference – new information interferes with or disrupts retrieval of similar old information. e.g., New home address interferes with one’s memory for old home address. iv. Proactive interference – old information interferes with or disrupts retrieval of similar new information. e.g., After studying for your Spanish midterm, you begin studying for your German midterm. While quizzing yourself on German words, you accidentally recall Spanish words instead. b. Motivated forgetting i. Repression - for example, psychogenic amnesia. ii. Suppression - for example, intentional forgetting. iii. Psychogenic amnesia c. Controlling unwanted thoughts i. Limit encoding ii. Prevent retrieval iii. Stop retrieval d. Directed forgetting i. Item-method Basden and Basden (1996) Effect reflects differences in episodic encoding. 1. Remember instructions lead to elaborative semantic encoding for that item. 2. Forget instructions stop rehearsal of that item. ii. List-method Geiselman, Bjork, and Fishman (1983) Cost: Forget instructions impair recall of items from the first list. Benefit: Forget instructions reduce proactive interference on the second list. Importantly, the items can be recognized later on, suggesting an effect on accessibility, rather than availability. e. Directed forgetting in the real world / Naturalistic directed forgetting Joslyn and Oakes (2005) i. Students made diary entries twice a day. ii. Students split into two groups: ‘remember’ and ‘forget.’ 1. Remember group – remember entries from first week as well as new ones from second week. 2. Forget group – forget entries from first week and concentrate on remembering new ones from second week. iii. Two weeks later, the students were asked to recall the events/entries from both the first and second weeks. iv. Results 1. The forget group had worse memory for the events from the first week. 2. Furthermore, forgetting occurred for both positive and negative mood events. f. Possible explanations for the effects of list-method directed forgetting i. Retrieval inhibition hypothesis – people can inhibit “to-be-forgotten” material, thereby reducing activation of unwanted memories. However, the memories remain available. ii. Context shift hypothesis – “forget” instructions result in a new mental state, i.e., a new context that separates list 1 from list 2 items. The new context / new mental state during study of list 2 items is a poor retrieval cue for list 1 items, resulting in poorer recall of list 1 items. 8. Recovery of memories a. Spontaneous recovery b. Repeated retrievals i. Reminiscence (Ballard, 1913) 1. Asked school children to memorize a poem. 2. Over repeated trials, the children were able to recall more and more lines of the poem that they could not remember previously. ii. Hypermnesia (Erdelyi & Kleinbard, 1978) 1. Repeated recall attempts over a one week period. a. Observed an improvement in recall over testing days, from 40% to over 80% of the materials. In other words, a reversal of Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve. b. This was especially true for pictures more than words, suggesting that hypermnesia occurs through visualization and memory reconstruction. iii. Hypermnesia in the real world (Bluck, Levine, & Laulhere, 1999) 1. More and more details of the OJ Simpson trial recalled over time. 2. Suggested that recalled details act as cues for more details which, in turn, act as cues for even more details, etc. iv. Cue reinstatement 1. Cues can trigger memory recovery. e.g., Seeing your ex-girlfriend or boyfriend’s favorite dish on the menu at a restaurant reminds you of some memories of her/him. v. Autobiographical memory recall (Nadel, Greenleaf, & Ryan, 2008) 1. Weekly recall attempts for one month and a final recall attempt 1 year later. 2. Over each successive recall attempt, more and more details were recalled. Demonstrates the effects of repeated retrievals with regard to hypermnesia in autobiographical memory and, perhaps, the effects of details acting as cues for more details. c. Recovered childhood memories i. Recovered memory therapy ii. Hypnosis and age regression techniques iii. Drugs, e.g., sodium amytal iv. Imagination, role playing v. Diaries and journals vi. Therapy-induced recovered memories 1. Controversy over accuracy of recovered memories. 2. Sometimes true, sometimes false. 9. False memories a. Lost in a shopping mall (Loftus & Pickrell, 1995) i. The experiment showed that false memories of being lost in a shopping mall were able to be “implanted” into adults’ memories. ii. Half of those who subsequently reported being lost in a mall even provided “details” of the event. Of course, these details were not true because the event never occurred. Key Terms from Lecture Normal aging – in the context of memory, it is a term used to describe memory functioning associated with the typical aging process as opposed to memory functioning related to dementia. Longitudinal studies – a method for investigating the effects of aging on memory where a group of individuals are enrolled in a study and tested multiple times over the course of several decades. Practice effects – individuals tend to get better at taking tests after multiple exposures. Cross-sectional studies – a method for investigating the effects of aging on memory where individuals of different ages are enrolled in a study, grouped according to age, and tested once. Comparisons are then made between age groups. Cohort effects – individuals born during different decades are probably going to differ in regards to education, social factors, diet, etc., and these cohort factors may influence performance on the memory tests. Processing capacity – a term used to describe the ability to perceive and process information using different, complex learning strategies. Associative Deficit Hypothesis – hypothesis suggesting that decline in episodic memory related to aging is attributable to impairment in the ability to bind or associate unrelated pieces of information. Prospective memory – the mnemonic ability to remember to perform actions in the future without explicit prompting. Key Concepts from Lecture What are some methods for studying aging and memory? 1. Longitudinal Studies: A sample of individuals that represent the general population are followed over several years or decades and tested multiple times. a. One advantage is it allows you to identify individual changes, which may help uncover precursors of memory problems. b. There are, however, several disadvantages. For example, it is expensive and time consuming, there are high dropout rates, and there are typically “practice effects” (people get better at taking the tests after repeated exposures). 2. Cross-Sectional Studies: Individuals of different ages are recruited and grouped according to their age. Each individual is tested only once and performances for the different age groups are compared to each other. a. Since each individual is tested only once, there are no practice effects, it is less expensive, there are lower dropout rates, and it takes less time. b. There is one major disadvantage: “Cohort effects.” People born at different times may be different in regards to diet, education, and a host of social factors and these factors may modulate memory performance. Because these methods have different advantages and disadvantages, they can actually lead to different results! 3. Hybrid Method Studies: A group of individuals are recruited and tested. When the original group of individuals are brought back for more testing, another cohort of individuals are added from the same age range and tested for the first time. a. Addresses the issue of practice effects by comparing the original group’s performance on the second testing to the new group’s performance on their initial testing. b. Addresses the issue of cohort effects by comparing the original group’s initial testing to the second group’s initial testing. This process can be repeated multiple times with additional groups added to the study each time. How does aging affect working memory? 1. Working Memory span progressively declines with age, although effects are larger when the test involves speed of processing or long term memory components. 2. Divided attention tends to decline with advanced age, but this may be largely attributable to high cognitive loads involved in dual task paradigms. What did Charness (1985) find in regards to chess playing and aging? How does aging affect long term memory? 1. Episodic memory experiences a gradual decline with aging. This includes measures of: a. Recall and recollection b. Verbal and visual materials c. Memory for names or places d. Memory for everyday events e. Memory for conversations However, the magnitude of the decline may be related to several variables. 1. The type of test and the method for testing. 2. “Processing Capacity” of the learner (Craik, 2005). Older adults take longer to perceive and process information and are less likely to spontaneously use elaborative strategies for remembering information. 3. The level of environmental support during retrieval can also modulate episodic memory. For example, tests that do not use very many external cues, such as free recall, are typically more difficult for older adults than recognition memory tests. The magnitude of decline seen with aging, therefore, is more pronounced for tests that do not provide many external cues. 4. The Associative Deficit Hypothesis (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000): The difference in episodic memory between younger and older adults is attributable to basic learning capacity. a. Older adults are particularly impaired when they have to learn new associations between information that are unrelated. For example, older adults have a harder time learning associations between unrelated words (museum – wine) than related pairs (coffee – cream). b. This deficit appears to be related to impairment in the binding or associating of different, unrelated pieces of information. c. This deficit in binding has been found to be even greater when attention is divided amongst multiple tasks. How does aging affect prospective memory? Prospective memory is a mnemonic ability that requires one to remember to perform an action at a future point in time without explicit reminders. For example, remembering to deliver a message to a friend next time you see her or remembering to attend a meeting at 5pm are examples of prospective memory. When tested in the laboratory, participants are engaged in an ongoing task and are required to remember to complete the prospective memory task either: a) after a specific time or b) after a cue appears. For example, the ongoing task can be playing a game of solitaire on the computer and the prospective memory task can be remembering to press a red button every five minutes or each time you turn over an ACE. How does aging affect semantic memory? Semantic memory does not typically decline with age. In fact, it actually gets better in many areas. 1. Vocabulary has been found to increase with age. 2. One’s world knowledge increases with more experience, although speed of access to the information might decline. 3. Written language is judged as “better” or more interesting, although the sentences are usually shorter than those written by younger adults. What are some theories for why memory is affected the way it is by aging? 1. The Reduced Processing Resources Theory: Older adults do not spontaneously engage in elaborative learning strategies, and it is the inability to automatically engage in these strategies that accounts for memory decline. a. When younger adults are prevented from using elaborative strategies, their memory performance looks similar to older adults. b. Giving older adults good strategies for learning enhances performance, although not typically to the same level of younger adults. 2. The Associative Memory Deficit (Naveh-Benjamin): Older adults have particular difficulty binding information that was previously unrelated. 1. For example, numerous studies have found item vs. source memory effects. Older adults have more trouble remembering whether a man or a woman spoke a sentence than they do remembering whether they heard the sentence before. In this instance, the gender of the voice and the sentence were previously unrelated, but needed to be associated. e.g., Item vs. Source memory study by Glisky (2002). Item = sentence Source = man or woman’s voice What are some factors associated with aging well? 1. Good physical health has been found to be related to less cognitive decline, including memory. 2. Continued involvement in mental activities throughout the lifespan can help prevent declines. Explicit memory training may help, but there is very little evidence to suggest that training results in generalized memory improvement. 3. An enriched environment? Key Terms from Lecture Engram – memory record. Plasticity – the ability of neurons and the brain to change in response to experience. Long-term neural plasticity – changes in the structure of neurons as a result of experience. Immediate neural plasticity – changes in neuronal function as a result of experience. Cell assemblies – networks of cells firing together. Long-term potentiation (LTP) – the process by which cell assemblies, or networks of neurons, become more responsive following synchronized firing that is consistent over time. According to Hebb, restimulating any neuron in the network will increase the firing rate of the whole network. Habituation paradigm – a method used to study the immediate changes that occur in neuronal function as a result of experience. Immediate changes are mediated through a decrease in release of a neurotransmitter. In other words, there is a decrease in responding to repetitive stimulation. Sensitization paradigm – a method used to study the immediate changes that occur in neuronal function as a result of experience. Immediate changes are mediated through an increase in release of a neurotransmitter. In other words, there is an increase in responding to repetitive stimulation. Limbic system – brain structures involved in emotional processing and memory processing. Includes hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, frontal lobes, and thalamus. Papez circuit – an interconnected loop of brain structures originally thought to be the neural basis for emotional experience. It was later determined to be critical for both emotion and memory. Post-traumatic amnesia – loss of memory for information from the onset of head trauma until continuous memory is restored. Retrograde amnesia – loss of memory prior to head trauma. Anterograde amnesia – the inability to learn new information. Hippocampus – brain structure in the medial temporal lobe shown to be important for memory consolidation via LTP. It is one of the structures of the limbic system and part of Papez circuit. Hippocampal amnesia – also known as the “classic amnesia.” This type of amnesia results from damage to the hippocampus. Damage may be due to infections (e.g., encephalitis), disease states (e.g., epilepsy), surgery (e.g., to relieve intractable seizures), stroke, etc. Deficits are primarily in episodic memories. Thalamus – structure deep inside the center of the brain also shown to be important for retrieval of memories. It is one of the structures of the limbic system and part of Papez circuit. Thalamic amnesia – amnesia due to damage to the thalamus such as stroke or injury. Deficits may be primarily in retrieval of information or in autobiographical memory. Amygdala – structure located in front of the hippocampi shown to be involved in emotional functioning, particularly fear/anxiety and conditioned learning. It is one of the structures of the limbic system. Item memory – memory for the informational content of an event. Source memory – memory for the origin of information, contextual details of an event. Key Concepts from Lecture 1. How is memory stored in the brain by neurons? a. Mechanisms for learning must have the following properties: i. Very fast ii. Long lasting iii. Relatively consistent b. Plasticity – the ability of neurons and the brain to change in response to experience. i. Long-term – structural changes in neurons. 1. Cell complexity 2. Size 3. Connections ii. Immediate – functional changes in neurons. 1. Very fast changes in neurons mediated by increases or decreases in neurotransmitter. Examples include the habituation and sensitization responses of Aplysia. c. Long-term potentiation (LTP) according to Hebb: i. Networks of neurons that consistently fire together at the same time become potentiated. ii. Potentiation refers to the facilitation in restimulating the network’s response/firing rate. It is important to note that restimulating any of the individual neurons in the network results in an increase in the whole network’s response/firing rate. iii. In other words, “neurons that fire together wire together” and “code” a single experience. iv. Hebb believed that LTP may have been the basis for complex learning. 2. Learning and retrieval of memories a. Hebb’s two stages of memory formation i. Short-term memory (STM) 1. The “activated” information is available in consciousness. 2. As long as the cell assembly continues reverberating, the information is available in STM. Reverberation is analogous to rehearsal in STM, but at the cell assembly level. ii. Long-term memory (LTM) 1. If reverberations occur over a long enough period, structural changes in the anatomy of the neurons occur. a. Examples of structural changes include the following: i. Increase in number of receptors, which helps strengthen synaptic connections. ii. Increase in production and release of neurotransmitters. iii. The synaptic cleft decreases in size, thereby facilitating neural transmission. b. Predicting a rat’s location and direction in a maze (McNaughton, Barnes, et al., 1986) i. Recorded activity from hippocampal neurons. ii. Found networks of cells that fired in response to particular mazes that the rats learned. iii. It was even possible to predict a rat’s location and direction of movement based on the neurons that were f
More Less

Related notes for ECOL 182R

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.