Chapter 1 Review
Key Terms from Lecture
Intentional learning: acquiring new knowledge through education and training, such as
studying for an exam.
Incidental learning: learning about the world through experience, such as remembering the
logos or labels on products you use (e.g., chimpanzee on Nimbus beer).
Implicit learning: learning without conscious awareness, such as social rules or the influence of
Verbal learning: refers to a method used in memory research that involves learning and
recalling lists of words or nonsense syllables.
Cognitive approach: investigates mechanisms or processes involved in learning and
remembering. For example, investigating how distributed practice leads to better memory for
information than cramming the same amount of information in one sitting.
Biological approach: investigates the neuronal mechanisms of learning and the functions of
various specific brain regions. For example, using animal models of epilepsy to investigate how
seizures may affect long-term memory.
Developmental approach: investigates how memory changes across the lifespan, how it
develops in childhood, how it changes in older adults.
Applied approach: focuses on the everyday applications of basic memory research, such as
rehabilitation for memory problems, or how to optimize studying.
Encoding: learning new information such as knowledge or events.
Storage: keeping information and memories available for later retrieval.
Retrieval: remembering both world knowledge and memories of past events.
Sensory registers / sensory memory: direct record of senses; refers to memories involving
very brief storage of information within a specific sensory modality such as visual information,
auditory information, tactile information, and smell information.
Iconic memory: refers to visual sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For
example, persistence of vision gives the illusion of smooth, continual movement.
Echoic memory: refers to auditory sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For
example, persistence of auditory input allows us to “hear” recent sounds.
1 Haptic memory: refers to tactile sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For
example, you can “feel” the path of touch long after the stimulus has been removed.
Olfactory memory: refers to sense of smell information that is held in store very briefly. For
example, odors “linger” after the source of the smell is removed.
Short-term memory: stores a limited amount of information that can be rehearsed for
temporary storage. Information is typically stored for a few seconds. For example, you may
rehearse a telephone number until you can get to a telephone to make the call.
Working memory: may be thought of as a mental workspace where information from short-
term memory can be combined with memories from long-term memory and manipulated,
providing a basis for “thought.” For example, figuring out the amount of tip you are going to
give a waitress or figuring out strategies to win a board game.
Long-term memory: a system or systems in which it is theoretically possible to store an
unlimited amount of information, more or less permanently. It is thought to comprise explicit
and implicit memories.
Explicit memories: memories that you are aware of and can consciously retrieve. There are
two types of explicit memories: episodic and semantic memories.
Episodic memories: memories for individual episodes or specific past events, i.e., events that
occur in a specific time and place. An example of an episodic memory is remembering what you
had for breakfast this morning.
Semantic memories: memories for facts and knowledge of the world. For example, knowing
that the capital of Arizona is Phoenix.
Implicit memories: memories that you are unaware of and cannot consciously retrieve. There
are three types of implicit memories: classical conditioning, motor skill learning, and priming.
Classical conditioning: refers to automatic responses to neutral stimuli after repeated pairings
with a response-evoking stimulus. For example, you walk by a bush and hear some rustling
noises. A lizard scurries past you and you jump. This experience occurs several more times
when you pass by bushes in other locations. Following these experiences, you begin to jump
whenever you hear rustling noises by a bush even though there is no lizard present.
Motor skill learning: refers to motor programs or sequences built up over time with practice,
such as playing a piano or riding a bicycle.
Priming: refers to the nonconscious influence of a previous experience on behavior. For
example, on your way to school you pass by a billboard advertising McDonald’s cheesburgers.
Later on that day in your business management class, your professor asks you to form small
groups with your classmates and decide upon a new business franchise. You propose starting a
2 fast food burger franchise without even realizing that the idea was primed by the billboard you
passed by earlier that day.
Distributed practice: spreading out studying across time; studying that is divided across a
number of short sessions.
Neuroimaging: refers to various methods for measuring regional brain activity associated with
performance of cognitive tasks. Examples of neuroimaging methods include functional magnetic
resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), or magnetoencephalography
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): a type of neuroimaging method in which
signal changes on MRI can be identified in brain regions associated with a cognitive task such as
remembering your very first date.
Positron emission tomography (PET): a neuroimaging method that involves injecting a
radioactively labeled substance such as glucose into the bloodstream and subsequently
monitoring changes in physiological activation.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG): a neuroimaging method whereby the activity of neurons
within the brain is detected through the tiny magnetic fields that their activity generates.
Key Concepts from Lecture
Three general types of memories:
Remembering our past experiences and acquiring new memories.
2. World knowledge
Acquiring new information.
3. Online processing
The “stuff” we have in mind at any given moment.
Four major approaches to memory research:
Cognitive approaches examine the mechanisms or processes involved in learning and
remembering. For example, one may investigate the processes involved in subjective
organization of information and how these processes aid in later retrieval of the
Biological approaches investigate memory at levels ranging from how neurons
communicate with one another to how brain regions or structures function. For example,
one may use neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) to investigate activation changes in the frontal lobes during a working memory
task such as backward digit span.
3 3. Developmental
Developmental approaches generally investigate how memory develops in childhood or
how it changes in older adults. For example, by studying early childhood development,
researchers have found that episodic memory is still developing during