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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Chapter 1 Review Key Terms from Lecture Intentional learning: acquiring new knowledge through education and training, such as studying for an exam. Incidental learning: learning about the world through experience, such as remembering the logos or labels on products you use (e.g., chimpanzee on Nimbus beer). Implicit learning: learning without conscious awareness, such as social rules or the influence of advertising. Verbal learning: refers to a method used in memory research that involves learning and recalling lists of words or nonsense syllables. Cognitive approach: investigates mechanisms or processes involved in learning and remembering. For example, investigating how distributed practice leads to better memory for information than cramming the same amount of information in one sitting. Biological approach: investigates the neuronal mechanisms of learning and the functions of various specific brain regions. For example, using animal models of epilepsy to investigate how seizures may affect long-term memory. Developmental approach: investigates how memory changes across the lifespan, how it develops in childhood, how it changes in older adults. Applied approach: focuses on the everyday applications of basic memory research, such as rehabilitation for memory problems, or how to optimize studying. Encoding: learning new information such as knowledge or events. Storage: keeping information and memories available for later retrieval. Retrieval: remembering both world knowledge and memories of past events. Sensory registers / sensory memory: direct record of senses; refers to memories involving very brief storage of information within a specific sensory modality such as visual information, auditory information, tactile information, and smell information. Iconic memory: refers to visual sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For example, persistence of vision gives the illusion of smooth, continual movement. Echoic memory: refers to auditory sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For example, persistence of auditory input allows us to “hear” recent sounds. 1 Haptic memory: refers to tactile sensory information that is held in store very briefly. For example, you can “feel” the path of touch long after the stimulus has been removed. Olfactory memory: refers to sense of smell information that is held in store very briefly. For example, odors “linger” after the source of the smell is removed. Short-term memory: stores a limited amount of information that can be rehearsed for temporary storage. Information is typically stored for a few seconds. For example, you may rehearse a telephone number until you can get to a telephone to make the call. Working memory: may be thought of as a mental workspace where information from short- term memory can be combined with memories from long-term memory and manipulated, providing a basis for “thought.” For example, figuring out the amount of tip you are going to give a waitress or figuring out strategies to win a board game. Long-term memory: a system or systems in which it is theoretically possible to store an unlimited amount of information, more or less permanently. It is thought to comprise explicit and implicit memories. Explicit memories: memories that you are aware of and can consciously retrieve. There are two types of explicit memories: episodic and semantic memories. Episodic memories: memories for individual episodes or specific past events, i.e., events that occur in a specific time and place. An example of an episodic memory is remembering what you had for breakfast this morning. Semantic memories: memories for facts and knowledge of the world. For example, knowing that the capital of Arizona is Phoenix. Implicit memories: memories that you are unaware of and cannot consciously retrieve. There are three types of implicit memories: classical conditioning, motor skill learning, and priming. Classical conditioning: refers to automatic responses to neutral stimuli after repeated pairings with a response-evoking stimulus. For example, you walk by a bush and hear some rustling noises. A lizard scurries past you and you jump. This experience occurs several more times when you pass by bushes in other locations. Following these experiences, you begin to jump whenever you hear rustling noises by a bush even though there is no lizard present. Motor skill learning: refers to motor programs or sequences built up over time with practice, such as playing a piano or riding a bicycle. Priming: refers to the nonconscious influence of a previous experience on behavior. For example, on your way to school you pass by a billboard advertising McDonald’s cheesburgers. Later on that day in your business management class, your professor asks you to form small groups with your classmates and decide upon a new business franchise. You propose starting a 2 fast food burger franchise without even realizing that the idea was primed by the billboard you passed by earlier that day. Distributed practice: spreading out studying across time; studying that is divided across a number of short sessions. Neuroimaging: refers to various methods for measuring regional brain activity associated with performance of cognitive tasks. Examples of neuroimaging methods include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): a type of neuroimaging method in which signal changes on MRI can be identified in brain regions associated with a cognitive task such as remembering your very first date. Positron emission tomography (PET): a neuroimaging method that involves injecting a radioactively labeled substance such as glucose into the bloodstream and subsequently monitoring changes in physiological activation. Magnetoencephalography (MEG): a neuroimaging method whereby the activity of neurons within the brain is detected through the tiny magnetic fields that their activity generates. Key Concepts from Lecture Three general types of memories: 1. Events Remembering our past experiences and acquiring new memories. 2. World knowledge Acquiring new information. 3. Online processing The “stuff” we have in mind at any given moment. Four major approaches to memory research: 1. Cognitive Cognitive approaches examine the mechanisms or processes involved in learning and remembering. For example, one may investigate the processes involved in subjective organization of information and how these processes aid in later retrieval of the information. 2. Biological Biological approaches investigate memory at levels ranging from how neurons communicate with one another to how brain regions or structures function. For example, one may use neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate activation changes in the frontal lobes during a working memory task such as backward digit span. 3 3. Developmental Developmental approaches generally investigate how memory develops in childhood or how it changes in older adults. For example, by studying early childhood development, researchers have found that episodic memory is still developing during
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