Study Guides (238,096)
United States (119,676)
Physiology (48)
PSIO 420 (4)

PSIO 420 Exam 1 review.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Arizona
PSIO 420
Douglas Keen

Introduction: Lecture #1 The importance of the Sun, food, and ATP - Physiology of muscular work and exercise is a matter of transforming bound energy into mechanical energy. First Energy from the sun is trapped in green plants and conserved in the form of foodstuff. This food stuff is consumed by us and is converted into a usable energy form know as ATP. This energy is utilized for various biological activities and the rest is liberated as heat. Bioenergetics - is the study of biological energy conversion. Basic principles of energy conversion: Energy conversion reaction involve the coupling of an endergonic and exergonic reaction. Energy given off of an exergonic reaction can be used to power an endergoinic reaction. • Endergonic - release energy ( produced Heat, ATP) • Exergonic - Use energy (uses ATP) • Example : coupled in body - production of ATP from 3 energy systems. This ATP gets used to power our bodily functions. ADP + Pi + energy > ATP - energy used to make a high energy molecule (endergonic) - used in aerobic respiration when storing energy in ATP. ATP > ADP +Pi +energy - energy released to help with cellular needs (exergonic) - used during exercise. How efficient can we be in our ability to directly use heat energy? Where does energy go? • Some energy is lost in the form of heat. Eg shivering can generate heat (useless contractions to get muscles warm). • Exercise allows us to use Heat more efficiently. • Q10effect - Where each 10 degrees increase in temperature doubles the reaction rate. Once the muscle reaches optimal temperature it can perform reactions fast. Therefore there is an increase in ATP production and power from the individual. • Thus warm up is very beneficial: 1. Increases muscle temp - closer to optimal temp 2. Oxygen dissociates more readily with warmer muscle 3. Oxygen - Hemoglobin binding USABLEenergy(ATP) • Efficiency of conversion = TOTALenergyconverted Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides: Fibers, Starch  Fibers cannot be broken down by our enzymes - fruits, vegetables, nuts  Starch - pasta - potatoes • Disaccharides  Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose • Monosaccharides  Glucose, Fructose, Galactose Triglycerides (Triacylglycerol)-FATS • Tend to be even numbered about 16-22 carbons long • Contain glycerol backbone, and 3 acyl groups. • Unsaturated (double bonds) vs. Saturated (single bonds) • Butter 4 carbon acyl group Proteins • Creatine phosphate - used as energy source Creatine • ATP- Adenosine-tri-phosphate Biological systems: There is very little ATP sitting in muscle at rest, thus we need enzymes to re- synthesize ATP. We are continually using ATP and making more. • Creatine Phosphate: 1. Sarcoplasm 2. Rapid reaction • Glycolysis: 1. Cytoplasm 2. Glucose - 2 pyruvate 3. fairly fast 4. No O2, Anaerobic • Aerobic respiration/metabolism 1. Mitochondria 2. Krebs cycle 3. Electron transport chain 4. 30-33 ATP 5. Use all substrates - CHO, FAT, A.A 6. Slowest process Creatine phosphate: • This reaction is very rapid and Runs out quickely (5-10 sec) • Most creatine found in skeletal muscle • 66% phosphorylated • Good for rapid energy • Doesn't produce lactic acid • Uses two enzymes to Hydrolyze ATP from ADP and Pi: Creatine kinase, Adenylate kinase. • One involves the Creatine phosphate protein, and the other involves ADP. • Decrease in CP and an increase in AMP seen during progressive intense exercise has been studied as central players in the signaling of glucose entry into cells for, glycogenolysis and glycolysis - break down of glycogen and glucose to ultimately produce more ATP the body to use as energy. What limits these cycles? • CP - Substrate can limit ATP, time (5-10sec), need fast ATP, recover in 8-10sec • Glycolysis - limited by change in Ph, more H+ ions in cytoplasm, time (1min), 3/4 glycolysis, 20-25% Aerobic, CP all burned up, recover glycolysis in about 30-40 min, Depends on all
More Less

Related notes for PSIO 420

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.