Study Guides (247,963)
United States (123,256)
CPH 306 (2)
Watson (2)

CPH 306 Final: 306 Final

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Public Health
CPH 306

Chapter 10: Tobacco - A legal product used by a significant proportion of adults - But a substance responsible for more adverse health consequences and death than any other drugs - Cultivated and used by Native Americans for centuries o Presented tobacco leaves as a gift to Colombus in 1492 - The word “Tabaco” was adopted by the Spanish o Possibly from the Arabic word ‘tabbaq” meaning “medicinal hers” - 1500s: Recognition of the medical potential grew - French physician Jean Nicot: early proponent o Nicotine (the active ingredient) and Nicotiana (the plant genus were named after him) - 16 and 17 centuries: viewed as having many positive medical uses but as having a negative reproductive effect - 1890s: Nicotine dropped form the U.S. Pharmacopoeia - Two major species grown today (out of more than 60) o Nicotiana Tobacum: Large-leaf species indigenous only to South America but now cultivated widely o Nicotiana rustica: small-leaf species from the west Indies and Eastern North America - Tobacco Products: snuff, chewing tobacco, cigars, cigarettes o Snuff 18 century: snuff use became widespread as smoking decreased o Snuff: In U.S., perceived as a British product; American use declined after the Revolution o Chewing tobacco 19 century: most tobacco used in the U.S. was chewing tobacco. o Chewing tobacco: smoking did not surpass chewing until the 1920s o Cigars: A combination of chewing and smoking o Cigars: peaked in popularity in 1920 o Cigarettes: Native Americans used thin reeds filled with tobacco o Cigarettes: Factories appeared in 19 century o Cigarettes: Habit spread widely with the advent of inexpensive machine-produced cigarettes o Cigarettes: currently most popular form of tobacco use - Cigarette product milestones: o 1913- Camels: low-prices domestic tobacco o 1939- Pall Mall: king size cigarettes o 1954- Winston: filter cigarettes - Filter cigarettes have over 90% of the U.S. cigarette market - 1604: King James of England published an anti-tobacco pamphlet o “harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs” o Note that he also supported the American tobacco trade - 1908: New York made it illegal for a woman to use tobacco in public - 1930s and 40s: Reports linking smoking and cancer - 1952: Readers’ Digest article “Cancer by the Carton” - Tobacco companies’ response to Readers’ Digest article: o Formation of the council for tobacco research ▪ Not independent and tried to undermine health risk claims o Mass-marketing of filter cigarettes and cigarettes with lowered tar and nicotine content ▪ Promoted as a ‘safer’ alternative - 1964: Surgeon General’s report states that smoking causes lung cancer in men - Tobacco sales began a decline that continued for 40 years after Sergeon General’s report release. - 1965: Congress required warning labels on cigarette packages - 1971: TV and radio cigarette ads banned - 1990: smoking banned on interstate buses and domestic airline flights - 1995: FDA proposed further regulation of tobacco and ads - Lawsuits seeking compensation for the health consequences of smoking - 1998 settlement between 46 states and major tobacco companies o 205$ billion in payments to the states o Advertising regulations o Enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to minor - Possible reasons for legal victories o Changing legal climate o Revelation of tobacco companies actions in hiding information on the adverse effects of smoking - For ‘safer’ cigarettes lower levels of nicotine and tar. o Caveat: people adjust their smoking behavior to obtain a consistent amount of nicotine o By taking more puffs and inhaling more deeply o Tar is the sticky brown material seen on the filter of a smoked cigarette o Based on changes in smoking behavior, there may be no advantage to seitching to a low tar low nicotine cigarette - Current Cigarette Use: 25% men. 20% women - Education is the single biggest influence on smoking rates - Percentage of smokers by education: High school diploma: 28%, undergraduate degree: 11%, full time college students: 5%, non college students: 19% - 1970s: use of smokeless tobacco increased as smokers looked for an alternative with lower risk of lung cancer. - Most common form of smokeless tobacco is moist snuff or nicotine absorbed through mucous membranes - Smokeless tobacco advantages over cigarettes include: unlikely to cause lung cancer, less expensive, and more socially acceptable in some circumstances - Smokeless tobacco is still hazardous - Smokeless tobacco health concerns include: increased risk of dental disease or oral cancer - Smokeless tobacco contains potent carcinogens such as nitrosamines - Smokeless tobacco causes leukoplakia - Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine dependence - In recent years, cigar smoking has increased - In 2008, 9% of males and 2% of females reported smoking a cigar in the past month. - Hookahs are a large ornate water pipe imported from Arab countries - Hookahs produce milder, water filtered tobacco smoke - Prevalence of hookah smoking is unclear - Major diseases linked to smoking include: lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive lung disease including emphysema. - Risks increases for those who: start young, smoke many cigarettes, and continue to smoke for a long time. - Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of death. - Second hand smoke is cigarette smoke inhaled from the environment by nonsmokers - Components of environmental smoke include mainstream smoke and side stream smoke. - Mainstream smoke: the smoke inhaled/exhaled by the smoker. - Sidestream smoke: the smoke rising from the ash of a cigarette, more carcinogens in smoke but smoke is more diluted. - Second hand smoke health effects difficult to fully determine but include lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. - 1933: Environmental Protection Agency classified secondhand smoke as a known human carcinogen. - Smoking causes five million deaths worldwide each year - Estimated by 2030 that smoking related deaths will rise to 8 million. - Demand for American Cigarettes in Asia and third world countries has increased markedly - Smoking while pregnant increases risks of: miscarriage, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) - Several studies indicate smoking while pregnant effects on physiological and cognitive development such as neurological problems, problems with reading and math, and hyperactivity. - Nicotine is a naturally occurring liquid alkaloid that is colorless and volatile - Tolerance and dependence for nicotine develop quickly - Nicotine is highly toxic in large enough doses. - Lethal dose of nicotine is 60mg - A cigar contains 120mg of nicotine. - 90% of inhaled nicotine is absorbed - 80-90% of nicotine is deactivated in the liver and then excreted via the kidneys - Use of nicotine increases the activity of liver enzymes responsible for nicotine deactivation. - Nicotine mimics acetylcholine - Nicotine first stimulates and then blocks receptor cites. - Nicotine causes the release of adrenaline and has an indirect sympathomimetic effect - Low level nicotine poisoning symptoms: nausea, dizziness, and weakness - Acute level poisoning symptoms: tremors, convulsions, paralysis of breathing muscles, death. - CNS and circulatory system nicotine effects: increased HR, BP, O2 needed for the heart, decreased O2 carrying ability of blood. - Nicotine reduces hunger by inhibiting hunger contractions, increasing blood sugar and deadening of taste buds - Nicotine has both stimulant and calming effects - Tobacco industry claims that its products do not cause dependence - There are more than 40 million ex smokers in the U.S. - The five A’s: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange. - The average smoker takes 8-13 attempts before they are successful - Chapter 15: Marijuana - Marijuana is a preparation of leafy material from the Cannabis plant that is usually smoked - Three Marijuana species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis Indica, and cannabis ruderalis. - Cannabis sativa: used primarily for its fibers from which hemp rope is made - Cannabis indica: grown for its psychoactive resins - Cannabis ruderalis: grows primarily in Russia - THC is the primary psychoactive agent in Cannabis and is concentrated in the resin - Potency of Cannabis preparations depends on the amount of resin present - Most resin is in the flowering tops, less in the leaves - Hashish is the most potent preparation and in its purest form it consists of pure resin that has been carefully removed from the surface of leaves and stems nd - Sinsemilla is the 2 most potent preparation. - Sinsemilla consists of died flowering tops of plants with pistillate flowers, average THC content is 11% - Earliest mention of Marijuana was 2737 BC: Chinese pharmacy book - 1000 AD: Social use of the plant had spread to the Muslim world and North Africa. - 1926: series of newspaper articles linked marijuana and crine, public interest increased - 1936: all states has laws regulating the use, sale, and/or possession of marijuana - most early regulation efforts: based on concerns about use and criminal behavior, not based on direct evidence. - Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 followed the regulation-by-taxation theme of the 1914 Harrison Act - Marijuana Tax Act of 1936 state laws made possession and use of marijuana illegal - 1969: U.S. Supreme Court declared the Marijuana Tax Act unconstitutional - After the Marijuana Tax Act cost of marijuana increased significantly. - LaGuardia Report in 1944 concluded that marijuana use had less serious effects than commonly believed. - Use of marijuana increased throughout the 1950s-1960s - After smoking THC is absorbed rapidly by the blood and travels to the brain and then to the rest of the body. - After smoking peak mood-altering and cardiovascular effects occur within 5-10 minutes. - After oral administration THC is absorbed more slowly, peak effects occur about 90minutes following ingestion - THC has
More Less

Related notes for CPH 306

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.