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Religion in the American Experience Exam #1 Review Sheet

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RELI 210

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1 Dr.C.S.Cotter (New Spain Outline) Religion in theAmerican Experience: Exam #1 Review NAME:_______________ 1. What is the name of the Italian mariner, sailing under the Spanish flag, who wanted to go east by sailing west? Christopher Columbus 2. Was commissioned by Queen Isabella as the “Admiral of the Ocean Sea” on 30 April 1492. Christopher Columbus 3. During theAge of Exploration, Portugal appealed to the Holy See, the papacy in Rome, to settle the competitive tension between its archrival, Spain. Pope Alexander VI responded by drawing an imaginary ling running down the middle of theAtlantic Ocean. This became known as: the papal Line of Demarcation 4. The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided newly discovered lands outside Europe between: Spain and Portugal 5. In a papal bull, Sublimis Deus (“The Sublime God”), issued in 1537 by Pope Paul III, declared that: Indians were human beings, not subhuman beasts; forbade their enslavement 6. In 1492, the co-sovereigns of Spain, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand: exiled about 100,000 Jews from Catholic Spain 7. What is the name of the Dominican missionary, who, in 1616, received the title of “Defender of the Indians” for venting his fury against his countrymen because of their cruel treatment of the native peoples? Bartholomew Las Casas 8. What is the name of the Jesuit missionary who travelled through northern Mexico (Sonora) and southernArizona on behalf of Catholic Spain in the late 1600s and early 1700s? Eusebio Kino 9. What is the name of the Portuguese mariner whose crew became the first known people of circumnavigate, or sail around, the globe? Ferdinand Magellan 10.In 1519 a Spaniard named Hernando Cortes sailed from Cuba to explore the Yucatan Peninsula with 11 ships, 550 men, and 16 horses. 11.Like other Europeans, the French were charmed by the idea of a Northwest Passage, which was: Awaterway shortcut from Europe toAsia 12.The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (1 pt. each): a. Who (its author)? William Penn b. What? Areligious pamphlet or tract (a religio-political polemic) c. When? circa 1670 [in the wake of the ConventicleAct, which outlawed anything butAnglicanism] d. Where? England, while imprisoned e. Why? To argue for religious freedom 13.Arrange the following English monarch is chronological order, according to their reign: c a. Edward VI, Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I. b. Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth I, Mary Tudor. c. Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I. d. Edward VI, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Mary Tudor. 14.Founded Quebec, which became the capital of the colony of New France: Samuel de Champlain 15.George Calvert, who held the title Lord Baltimore, founded a colony, which he later named Maryland, where Catholics could practice their religion freely. 2 16.Maryland’s Toleration Act of 1649: limited toleration to Trinitarian Christians 17.Which best describes the relationship between religion and government in the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Puritans dictated both religious and governmental matters 18.Pennsylvania was founded as a “Holy Experiment” to provide settlers complete political and religious freedom. 19.In 1635 the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony banished Roger Williams for religious heterodoxy. 20.In January 1639, settlers in Connecticut, led by Thomas Hooker, drew up: the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 21.Took over as the director-general of New Netherland in 1647: Peter Stuyvesant 22.In 1664, unannounced, English ships attacked the fort and island of Cape Verde operated by the Dutch West India Company off the Guinea coast ofAfrica, while English colonists seized islands in the West Indies and New Amsterdam (renaming it New York, after Charles’brother James, the lord HighAdmiral and Duke of York). 23.What was the “Great Migration”? mass migration (about 20,000) from Old England to New England And when did it occur? 1630s 24.What was the name of the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company? John Winthrop 25.William Laud was: Archbishop of Canterbury (one of the two most important ecclesiastical posts in the Church of England) 26.The Chesapeake refers to a chunk of land in: Virginia 27.The Massachusetts Bay charter was revoked in the 1680s by whom? James II 28.Sir EdmundAndros was: lieutenant governor of New York, governor general of the Dominion of New England, governor of Virginia 29. The Dutch Stadtholder, Prince William of Orange, was a: Calvinist.Accompanied by an armada of 500 ships, invaded England and overthrew his uncle and father- in-law, restoring Protestantism in the Glorious Revolution 30.In North America the Glorious Revolution was essentially a reaction to the far- reaching innovations in government, administration, and justice introduced under James II 31.Beginning in the 1650s and continuing under the restored Stuart monarchy, Parliament enacted a succession of measures designed to ensure, among other commercial goals, England’s monopoly of the bulk of the colonies’imports and exports. What were these acts called? the NavigationActs 32.Increase Mather was minister in Boston and President of Harvard during the: Glorious Revolution 33.Because Pennsylvania was owned by William Penn, it was considered: a proprietary colony 34.William Penn was a Quaker (name of religion). a. The Inner Light is the doctrine that there is something Divine, Something of God in the human soul. 35.Individuals who signed contracts to cover the cost of transportation to the colonies were called: indentured servants 36.The Treaty of Tordesillas established which of the following? already discussed 3 Dr.C.S.Cotter (New Spain Outline) 37.What is the name of the founding father of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)? Ignatius Loyola 38.Discuss some of the notable differences (geographical, religious, political or otherwise) between New Spain, New France, New Netherland, and New England. a. New Spain (2pts): Catholic, missions, building, south b. New France (2pts): Catholic, Quebec c. New Netherland (2pts): Protestant, religious quasi-tolerance d. New England (2pts): Protestant, Puritan stronghold 39.What was the Cambridge Platform (1648)? Author: Richard Mather; rejected congregational autonomy 40.What was the name of the first domine to lead a congregation of the Dutch Reformed Church inAmerica? Johannes Michelius 41.The Puritan movement began in: Elizabethan England 42.Working closely with Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584, Richard Hakluyt presented to Queen Elizabeth A Discourse Concerning Western Planting. Here he pleaded for what was to become England’s distinctive approach to the New World: colonizing Virginia? 43.Why did Increase Mather return to England in 1688? to negotiate Massachusetts’s recently revoked charter 44.Puritans were: religious reformers who wanted to purge the Church of England from its Catholic corruptions, zealous Protestants, Calvinists who followed the Reformed theology of the Franco-Swiss Reformer John Calvin 45.The Selling of Joseph? (1pt each) a. Who? (its author): Samuel Sewall b. What? The first pamphlet condemning slavery and theAfrican slave trade. The story of Joseph is alluded to in an allegorical sense to reflect on the hypocrisy in Puritan society, namely, theAfrican slave trade. c. When? circa 1700 d. Where? Colonial Massachusetts, more specifically, Cambridge e. Why? Rejects the notion thatAfricans suffered under the “curse of Ham” (the idea that the son of Noah was not covered by the blood of Christ) and we are therefore morally obligated to enslave them. Rejects the notion that the slave trade could be justified because it brought pagans to the gospel. Even if Abraham had owned slaves, the Israelites were strictly forbidden from buying or selling each other as slaves. Thus, all men are co-heirs and slavery is wrong. 46.Identify the following quotation: “While I plead the Cause of Truth and Innocencie against the bloody Doctrine of Persecution for cause of conscience, I judge it not unfit to give alarme to my selfe, and all men to prepare to be persecuted or haunted for cause of conscience.” (1pt each) a. Who? Roger Williams b. What? a book arguing for a “wall of separation” between church and state c. When? 1644 d. Where? Massachusetts Bay Colony? Colonial New England e. Why? the relationship between civil and ecclesiastical powers – argues against state sponsorship of religion 4 Mid-Term Exam (Review Sheet) Your mid-term, which is cumulative, will have two sections: A take-home section and an in-class section. Section 1 (take-home): What role, if any, did religion play in the American Revolution? Your two-page, typed response must be written in formal academic prose, i.e., no bullet points! Same format as always. Your written narrative must proceed chronologically, beginning with the Great Awakening (ca. 1740) and ending in the wake of the American Revolution (ca. 1800). Thus, if you were to answer in the affirmative (that religious issues, though not the only cause, were at the root of much of the conflict), you would then have to structure your narrative from the Great Awakeningand its institutional effects) to, for example, Jefferson’s Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom (1786). Your succinct essay ought to including the following figures: George Whitfield, Jonathan Edwards, James Davenport, Charles Chauncy, Jonathan Mayhew, John Witherspoon, and Thomas Jefferson, and their principal publications , for which see below. Always identify your cast of characters when introducing them. For example: In 1750 Jonathan Mayhew, pastor of the West (Congregational) Church in Boston, preached that … OR Writing in the wake of the Revolution, Thomas Jefferson, chief architect of the Declaration of Independence, argued that … Always identify your cast of characters! Section 2 (in-class): Your in-class exam will consist primarily of matching and multiple- choice questions.Among the key historical figures are: Jonathan Mayhew: Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission Thomas Jefferson: Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom in Virginia, chief architect of the Declaration of Independence, John Witherspoon: president of Princeton, Scots Presbyterian, 1774, The Dominion of Providence over the Passions of Men, justified armed resistance against the King George Whitfield: James Davenport: wild-eyed fanatic of Great Awakening, declared insane by civil and ecclesiastical authorities and wife, polarity between pro-revivalists such as Jonathan Edwards and anti-revivalists such as Charles Chauncy Increase Mather: Jonathan Edwards: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Charles Chauncy: Jonathan Edwards’s chief opponent, opposed GreatAwakening revival Samuel Sewall: The Selling of Joseph, judge, New England, 1700, first anti-slavery tract in the New World Roger Williams: The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution William Penn: Richard Mather: Arrange them in chronological order Match them to their principal publication(s) 5 Dr.C.S.Cotter (New Spain Outline) New Spain Outline Historical Introduction on the History of Christianity Roman Emperor Constantine (r. 306-37) Moved headquarters of Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium (Constantinople [Istanbul]) Split Eastern Orthodoxy from Roman Catholicism Roman Emperor Theodosius (r. 379-95) 380 – Roman Catholic Church the only legitimate religion Established “Christendom” 16th century - Great Schism between Catholicism and Protestantism Historical Introduction on the Religious Landscape of New Spain The Spanish domains which became parts of the United States were all borderlands. The most important institutions peculiar to the borderlands were the presidio and the mission. The former was the military outpost, consisting of an unruly company of soldiers which the padres wanted to keep as far from the Indians as possible, and a commander whose efforts to aggrandize his power and profit often precipitated a clash with the clerics. The mission, on the other hand, represented the religious and educational – and thus the civilizing – forces on this remote frontier. In addition to these major institutions, there were many private ranches, or encomiendas, often origination with generous grants and almost invariable dependent on Indian labor. Finally, there were the widely scattered towns which grew up around military or governmental centers and became by a natural process the centers of trade and of whatever social life existed. There were, properly speaking, no cities in the borderlands except perhaps New Orleans, but it was Spanish only from 1763 to 1800. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) “Admiral of the Ocean Sea” An Italian mariner, sailing under a Spanish flag, who wanted to go east by sailing west Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Considered colonization as a holy alliance between church and state Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Hernando Cortéz (1485-1547) Spanish Conquistador and Conqueror of Mexico and the Aztec empire (remembered for their Egyptian-like pyramids) Invaded and conquered the Aztec empire of ca. 5 Mil. people with less than 600 soldiers, 20 horses, and 10 small cannons Obliterated a loose confederation of more or less antonymous indigenous tribal groups from central Mexico to the Yucatan Peninsula Dismantled Aztec temples and built Catholic cathedrals His conquests led to ca. 300 years of Spanish (Catholic) domination 6 Mexican Primers (c. 1900) Juan Ponce de León (1474-1521) Spanish explorer and conquistador First Governor of Puerto Rico (1509-12; 1515-19) First European to set foot in Florida (1513) "Pascua de Florida" (feast of flowers): St Augustine, FL Bartholomew Las Casas (1474-1566) “Defender of the Indians” A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies Asked “whether it could be worse to give the Indians into the charge of the devils of hell than to the Christians of the Indies.” Sublimis Deus (1537): Indians should not “in any way be enslaved” Accidentally exchanged one evil for another - Slavery Spain’s Southwest Missions Keen on construction: Spanish missions Santa Fe (Holy Faith), established 1610 Eusebio Kino (1645-1711) Father Eusebio Francisco Kino (1645-1711), an Italian-born Jesuit priest and former royal cosmographer in the service of Spain, explored Pimería Alta in present-day southern Arizona and northern Mexico in the 1680s and 1690s. Because Kino was a skilled cartographer, his maps and writings added greatly to the knowledge of the Southwest. For example, on an earlier mission to Baja California in 1683-85, he determined that California was not an island.Father Kino founded numerous missions and won many converts among the natives, whose customs he respected. He founded the mission of San Xavier del Bac in 1700 on the Santa Cruz River, near present-day Tucson, part of a chain of missions extending from Sonora and Baja California into Arizona. Kino introduced horses, cattle, and new crops such as wheat to the native peoples of the Pima region. Jesuit priest, itinerant evangelist, explorer, map-maker, mathematician, author, and astronomer. His largest and best know (and still extant) mission is San Xavier del Bac (Tucson, AZ) Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): “papal line of demarcation”: north-south line west of which all lands discovered would belong to Spain, east of which all such lands would belong to Portugal New France Outline Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) 1534, sailed past fishing banks into straits between Newfoundland and Labrador Montaigne compares “barbaric” cannibalism in the New World to those who sanctioned torture (in the name of God) in the Old World The idea that God had given the land to Europeans 7 Dr.C.S.Cotter (New Spain Outline) Motive for European explorers was to find the Northwest Passage St. Lawrence River – fur trade Edict of Nantes (1598) granted French Protestants (Huguenots) the right to practice their religion until revoked in 1685 Differences between the colonization efforts of New Spain, New France, New Netherlands, and New England: geography, motivation Samuel de Champlain (ca. 1567-1635), “The Father of New France”, founded Quebec City on 3 July 1608 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) – founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) in 1540, a Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, evangelized Indians heavily Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), “The Apostle of the Hurons”, and Isaac Jogues (1607-46) were captured, tortured, and subsequently canonized, along with seven other Catholic missionaries, who became known as the North American Martyrs or Canadian Martyrs Jesuits brought a disease, Hurons blamed epidemic on God in the form of Jesuit representatives, Jesuits ministered to sick but were martyred anyway Kateri Tekakwitha (1656-80), baptized as Catherine Tekakwitha and informally known as Lily of the Mohawks, beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1980 and canonized by Pope Benedict XVI at Saint Peter's Basilica on 21 October 2012 Jacques Marquette (1637-75), a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan’s first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, with his travelling- companion, Louis Joliet, was the first European to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River Similarities between New Spain and New France Seeking a Northwest Passage Catholicism Differences Geography (Spain targeted the South, France the North) Hence, topography (Spain brought horses, France navigated waterways) Key Terms Beatified (Beatification): Canonization (or canonization) is the act by which a Catholic or Orthodox church declares a deceased person to be a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints. 8 Edict of Nantes (1598): granted France’s Protestants (Huguenots) the right to practice their faith and maintain defensive garrisons. King Louis XIV revoked the Edict in 1685. Hundreds of thousands of French Protestants fled France. Some made their way to North America, settling in William Penn’s newly founded colony of Pennsylvania. Indian tribes: Algonquian: Chippewas: Hurons: Illinois: Iroquois: Mohawk Sioux: Martyrdom (Martyr): Society of Jesus (Jesuits): Founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) and became one of the most rigorous missionary instruments of the Catholic Counter Reformation Ursulines: New Netherland and the Dutch Origins of American Religious Liberty The Dutch brought tolerance and religious diversity to America and became part of that diversity. New Netherland split into NY, NJ, Pennsylvania, Delaware (middle colonies). Amsterdam was the center of 17th-century world trade (previously Antwerp). The Dutch Revolt On 10 July 1584, Prince William of Orange, the leader of the resistance to the rule of Spain in the Low Countries, was assassinated at Delft. As a consequence, the Spanish Governor, the Duke of Parma, was able to make steady advances, and both Brussels and Antwerp capitulated to his forces in the following year. The States General now met at The Hague in Holland, and represented only the seven provinces in the Union of Utrecht (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland and Groningen). Count Maurice of Nassau (the second son of the assassinated former leader) was appointed Stadtholder by the States General in November 1585, and in December English troops under Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, were despatched by Queen Elizabeth I to assist the Dutch rebels. In 1588 Catholic Spain responded by sending an Armada to invade Protestant England. The provinces of the Union of Utrecht eventually became a separate state, called the United Provinces of the Netherlands, or more briefly, the Dutch Republic. Spain formally recognised Dutch independence in 1648 at the conclusion of the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). The mission at The Hague was regarded as one of the most important on account of the long close alliance with the United Provinces, and its position as a centre for news and intelligence. When King George I or King George II were in Hanover, it was customary for one of the two Secretaries of State to travel with the King and for the other to remain in Whitehall, and the British representative at 9 Dr.C.S.Cotter (New Spain Outline) The Hague would usually communicate with both secretaries, often sending duplicate despatches. Fishing for Souls (Matthew 4:19) (painting of Catholics and Protestants fishing for men) The Calvinist (Reformed) Church -Union of Utrecht (1579): Article 13 guaranteed religious liberty (or freedom of conscience) -John Calvin (1509-64): Franco-Swiss Reformer whose Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) is generally regarded as on the greatest works to emerge from the Reformation (this is important for the test) -Reformed (or Calvinist) tradition is particularly important to the English-speaking world Calvinist-influenced anti-Catholic legislation sporadically enforced Dutch Tolerance -Freedom (or liberty) of conscience was guaranteed in the Union of Utrecht (1579) (Article 2 opposed the re-establishment of Catholicism) -What I am calling “Dutch tolerance” the Dutch themselves called liberty of conscience or freedom of belief (gewetensvrijheid or geloofsvrijheid) Leiden University -Founded in 1575, in the wake of the Dutch Revolt against Catholic Spain, and built upon a Protestant foundation (Praesidium Libertatis “Bastion of Freedom”) -Intellectual center of the Dutch Reformed Church and a leading center of study for Reformed Protestants internationally -Dilemma of Dutch tolerance: professors had to be members of the Ref
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