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[AVS 145] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (27 pages long!)


Department
Animal and Veterinary Science
Course Code
AVS 145
Professor
Juan Romero
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofM
AVS 145
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Animal Nutrition: The Basics
Animal feeding accounts for 45-75% of costs of livestock production.
Feeding will make or break the animal’s performance.
Nutrition
Science that studies the body’s requirements of butrients and how these are accuired digested,
Nutrients provide energy, building material and metaboli regulators
Micro Nutrients
Minerals
Vitamins
Macro Nutrients
Water
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Water basis of the fluids of living organisms
Lubricants
Temp regulation
Carbs:
Neutral compounds containing C, H, and O and have the formula (CH2O)n where n is 3 or higher
Includes starches, sugars cellulose and energy
Provide energy for chemical reactions
Can also provide dietary
Carbs represent the largest % of nutrient content in the most common feedstuffs.
Bacteria and some animals can break down cellulose, humans cannot.
Proteins
Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order.
Primary Use: Components of lean tissue, enzymes, hormones and metabolites.
Depends on:
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Age: Young animals to grow/ Mature animals to replace.
Feeds: Different feeds contain different types of proteins.
Stage: Pregnancy and milk production require a substantial amount of protein.
Fats:
Esters of fatty acids and glycerol.
Provide high energy to animals- 2.25 time more energy than carbs or proteins.
Source of essential fatty acids.
Carriers of fat-soluble vitamins.
Common fat feedstuffs: Tallow, fish oil, vegetable oils.
Vitamins:
Organic substances required in small quantities in the diet of some species, generally a component of
coenzymes.
Minerals:
Macro-minerals: Calcium, Sodium, Phosphorus
Micro-minerals
What is energy? Capacity to do work (Physics definition)
In nutrition it’s defined as: Heat (calorie) that is produced.
BODY FUNCTIONS
Maintenance: Refers to maintaining the body at a constant weight and temperature.
Growth: The process of increasing the body weight by adding to the tissue already present.
Reproduction: The production of live, normal offspring. Third trimester of pregnancy is the most
critical.
Production: Refers to the output of eggs, milk, and wool. Diets must be balanced for these
nutrients.
Finishing: Final growth and fattening phase of animals used for meat production. All nutrients,
but energy in much higher proportions.
Work: Major product for some species such as working horses, working dogs, and packing
llamas.
Basal Metabolism: the minimal amount of energy required to maintain the body.
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