[BMB 240] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 19 pages long Study Guide!

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BMB 240
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BMB 240
January 18, 2017
Lecture 1
What is microbiology?
Branch of science that concerns the study of organisms
Microbiologists study acellular and cellular organisms
Taxonomy
Whittakers taxonomy contained five kingdoms:
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Protista
Monera
Phylogenetic tree:
Woese’s phylogenetic tree of life simplified the five kingdoms into
three domains:
Eukaryotes
Bacteria
Archaea
Important faces of in the history of microbiology:
Leeuwenhoek:
Lensmaker that discovered the ability to view organisms invisible to
the naked eye with the use of a lense
Later went along to create a microscope
Redi:
Studied the formation of diseases/parasites
Put to question the theory that these organisms appear out of thin
air
Needham and spallanzani:
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Similar to Redi, the two tested the manner in which organisms form
by developing an experiment with meat both.
One left their portion of both covered, while the other left his
uncovered. The uncovered showed growth, while the covered
showed none.
Pasteur:
Put to rest the argument that organisms can spontaneously
appear.
Koch:
Germ theory of disease
The thought that microorganisms are the cause many
forms of disease
Gram:
Created a stain detects peptidoglycan that separates bacteria
into two large groups - gram positive/negative-
Lyster and tyndell:
Aseptic technique
Semmelweis:
Improved hygiene techniques that decreased occurrence of
puerperal fever in birthing mothers
Flemming:
Formation of antibiotics
How are bacteria and eukaryotes distinguished:
The two are distinguished by:
Size
DNA structure
Nucleus and organelles
Metabolism
Reproduction and cell division
Applications of microbiology:
Disease:
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