1. American System- The American system was a plan developed by Henry Clay in 1824 as
his platform for running for president. This system was comprised of three integral parts
that were set to protect our agricultural, commerce, and industrial industries. With this
system in place it would create tariffs to protect industry, a federalized bank and
subsides for internal improvement. These subsides would go towards funding the
infrastructure of the nation like roads and canals so that transportation would be better
for the sake of industry.
2. Monroe Doctrine- Developed by President James Monroe in 1823 during his address to
congress, was a series of policies that would be set in place for the future of the United
States. President Monroe wanted to enact these new diplomatic ideas to apply towards
the U.S. foreign policies because he believed that the U.S. needed to estrange itself from
European affairs. The main aspects to the doctrine were compromised of closing off
colonization of the Americas (including Latin America) and remaining neutral in
3. Nullification Crisis- In 1828 President Andrew Jackson created a tariff that increased the
amount of taxes due on imported goods. With the south not being able to compete with
the north over the industrialized goods like iron and wool products, they believed that it
was outlandish. South Carolina decided to take this issue at hand on a states rights
matter and declared the tax on imported goods null and void in the state. This action as seen by many, including Jackson as a form of renouncing the union although it wasn’t
that way at all.
4. Panic of 1837- The panic of 1837 was a direct result from the Britain’s economic
depression. It wasn’t just Britain’s depression that put the U.S, into a depression of
itself but other factors such as failing cotton and wheat prices, banking changes, and
5. Paternalism- an ethical idea created on the basis that what was being enforced was for
the betterment of others. In this case it is referring to how in the nineteenth century
slave owners would justify owning slaves because it was for the slaves own good that
they did not have liberty.
6. Underground railroad- A system of routes and safe houses developed to aid in the
freedom of slaves. This name was coined out of how the system worked, for example
the people who led the missions were called “ Conductors” and each hide away point
was called a station.
7. Temperance movement- this movement was an organized effort led by militant
Christians who wanted to stop the consumption on alcohol on the basis that intoxication
led to violence against women and children. This movement was mostly led by women
in hopes of not facing violence from their husbands.
8. Ku Klux Klan-Originally created after the end of the civil war was an organization which
served as a military arm of the democratic party in the south founded in Tennessee.
With this idea, the Klan terrorized the south mainly by targeting African Americans by
lynching, murdering, and assaulting them. 9. Emancipation Proclamation- Declaration announced by President Abraham Lincoln in
1862. This proclamation freed slaves in areas under confederate control. This was done
so not on the basis of moral reasons really but for political gain. Freedom of slaves
meant that they did not have to do what their masters ensued and in turn would help
the union win the civil war. The issue with this proclamation though is that many slaves
did not even know that they were “freed” because the communication obviously wasn’t
enact back during this time period.
10. The sea island experiment- this experiment was an initiative given to freed slaves to
work for wages or even their own land on the islands of coastal South Carolina and
Georgia. Through this program they could also receive education.
11. Bargain of 1877- The bargain of 1877 was an arrangement between the democrats and
republicans over who had won the presidency. During this time period Rutherford B.
Hayes was running on the republican ballot with Samuel Tilden running for the
democrats. Since there was such a deadlock between who won what states a bargain
was created to help this decision. Congress in January of 1877 appointed a 15-member
electoral commission which they would vote and decide on who would be our next
president. While behind closed doors those a different bargain was being created in
which the republicans would appoint a democrat as a member of the cabinet in
exchange for the democrats not to dispute Hayes’s right to office.
12. The 14th amendment- The 14 amendment to the United States constitution came into
place in 1866 which dictated the principle in which defined citizenship for the United
States. The amendment reached further than just defining who qualifies as citizens but “prohibited the states from abridging the privileges of immunities of citizens or denying
any person of the equal protection laws”. Although this terminology could be applied to
voting, it still did not give the rights to black men to vote.
13. Dred Scot decision- The Dred Scott vs. Sandford was a case based on the legality of
bringing a slave to a region where it was illegal to have slaves. In this case Scott had
been brought to Illinois from Missouri where it was legal in Missouri but illegal in Illinois.
Scott sued for his freedom and ultimately remained a slave on the premises that only
white men were citizens of the United States therefore he could not sue for his freedom
since he isn’t even a citizen of the nation. Although this decision declared that slaves
could not be citizens of the United States, it helped bring forth a challenge to change
that in the reconstruction era.
14. Harpers ferry- Harpers Ferry, located in Virginia was the location of the national armory.
On October 16-17, 1859, John Brown led a raid upon the armory in hopes of creating a
revolt against slavery. John Brown was a known abolitionist mostly known for “Bleeding
Kansas” and believed by creating this revolt in Virginia he could free the slaves there but
with this aspiration he failed miserably. This failure was due to the lack of men and
preparation, Brown and his men were trapped within the arsenal and had to battle it
out with the Marines which ultimately led in the capture and eventual death of John
15. “King Cotton Diplomacy”- An attempt from the south to gain British intervention during
the civil war in the favor of the southern slave states. This was done through banning cotton exports to the British in hopes that they could control them by getting the help that
they so desperately needed.
• American histories usually emphasize enslaved men and women’s production of cotton.
Describe some of the other occupations enslaved peoples held and the levels of freedom
some of those occupations afforded them.
While the history of the United States is mostly known by two major events, the
revolutionary war and the civil war, the only one that still faces conflicts with todays society
is the civil war. What we know from the Civil war was started on the basis of slave