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SOCI 1010 Final: Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Over Chapters 12- 13 ONLY

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SOCI 1010

Sociology Final Exam: Chapters 12 and 13 Chapter 12: Family and Human Sexuality • Family o There is no solid agreeable definition of family o Family is a social institution, meaning a system of behavioral and relationship patterns that are densely interwoven and enduring, and function across an entire society. o Family Composition ▪ Assumptions about families: ▫ there will be two parents ▫ single parents causes the children to grow up off or troublesome ▫ ideal type family exists when there is no such thing ▫ Assume there is male and female parents in the home, but there is same-sex families now ▪ Nuclear family: a married couple and their children living together; ideal family; larger family groups are built upon ▫ Ex: The Cosby Show or The Brady Brunch ▫ Came from a census data in the 1950s ▪ Extended family: when the parents, children, and other relatives are all living together. ▫ Ex: grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins ▪ Monogamy: a form of marriage in which an individual has only one partner ▫ Traditional, ideal ▪ Polygamy: an individual has several husbands or wives simultaneously ▫ Common form for families hundreds of years ago ▫ Polygyny: when a marriage has one man and multiple women  Women consider themselves sister wives  Expected to hold similar values and have experience sharing a household ▫ Polyandry: a marriage where a women has multiple husbands ▪ Serial monogamy: a person may have several spouses in a lifetime, but not at the same time ▫ multiple marriages, divorces, or death partings o Kinship Patterns ▪ Kinship: the state of being related to others ▫ Culturally learned, not determined by biological or marital ties ▫ Bilateral descent: both sides of a person's family are regarded as equal  Ties by history; going down history timeline; what we use often times now ▫ Patrilineal: only the father's relatives are significant in terms of property, inheritance, and emotional ties ▫ Matrilineal: only the mother's relatives are significant (rarely used) o Authority Patterns ▪ Patriarchy: a society that expects males to dominate in all family decision making ▪ Matriarchy: women have greater authority than men ▫ Indians used this form of authority; Women were looked down upon and refused to have business done with by early settlers ▫ Rarely seen now o Egalitarian family: spouses are regarded as equals ▫ Women hold authority in some spheres, men has authority in other areas ; Believe to be replacing the original patriarchy o Sociological Perspectives ▪ Functionalist: the family performs 6 different functions; found in every society (universal/ form might be different) ▫ Replacing personnel: reproduction, contributes to human survival ▫ Protection: protects its members; upbringing of children ▫ Socialization : monitor a child's behaviors and transmit norms, values, and language of the culture to the child; knowledge on how to become a better and productive member of society ▫ Regulation of sexual behavior: enforces and regulates who and why a person has sex; acceptable boundaries ▫ Affection and companionship: creates the sense of security and satisfaction; provides warm and intimate relationships; expects others to understand, care, and be there for us ▫ Provision of social status: inherit a social position because of the family background and reputation of parents and siblings; likely to die in the social class you were born in ▪ Conflict Thinkers: family is not a contributor to social stability; a reflection of the inequality in wealth and power that is found within the larger society ▫ Wealthy stays wealth, and the poor remains poor ▫ Says the family sets children up for how they will live in the world ▪ Interactionist: study the behavior of members within the family ▫ Patterns of involvement between parents and children ▪ Group dynamics within the family o Mate Selection ▪ Exchange theory: weighting our options and rewards of each decision can offer us. ▫ Reward-cost analysis ▪ Endogamy : specifics the groups within which a spouse must be found and prohibits marriage with others ▫ Religion beliefs, social position, racial, or ethnics ▫ Intended to reinforce the cohesiveness of the group by suggesting to the young that they should marry someone 'of their own kind' ▪ Exogamy: requires mate selection outside certain groups ▫ Usually one's family or kinfolks ▫ Wanting someone like you, but also different ▫ Incest taboo : prohibits sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives; cousins, step siblings ▪ Homogamy: the conscious or unconscious tendency to select a mate with personal characteristics similar to one's own o Marriage ▪ Poor people tend to marry quicker than the wealthy ▪ White and European families tend to be more nuclear (just parents and children within the house) ▪ Extended families make things easier, practical living arrangements ▪ Marriage rates have not been going up steadily since 1970s because of the "no fault divorce" law ▫ Law made divorce cheap and easy o Divorce ▪ You get divorced once, you are very likely to do it again. ▪ When people find out the relationship is more costly than the reward of being with someone. ▪ Exchange theory: the idea of how we decide who we spend our time with and why. o Diverse Lifestyles ▪ Cohabitation: male-female couples who choose to live together without being married. ▫ Very few people cohabitate indefinitely ▫ People who cohabitate usually end up married later in life ▪ Single families ▪ Stepfamilies, or blended families Chapter 13: Religion and Education Religion • A unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. o Sacred: elements beyond everyday li
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