ARH 314 Final: final notes

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Published on 19 Oct 2017
School
University of Oregon
Department
Art History
Course
ARH 314
Overview: Caves to Turkey
What is architecture?
-Usage of space
-Beauty of a structure
-Interruptive
-Style of a structure and it reflects the time period, culture
-Form (appearance), functional (used for, beauty), content
From caves to cathedrals (30,000 BC 13000 BC)
-Caves are not architecture (not man made)
-History is writing (otherwise limited by guessing)
Architectural History is the study of buildings as cultural artifacts
-Architectural Questions:
-When was a building made?
-Why was it made?
-What’s its pupose?
-Who made it?
-Who paid for it?
-What buildings were known to the builder that designed the building?
-What does the building mean?
WHEN, WHERE, WHY and by WHOM did architecture begin to be made?
-The Piitie Hut
-In nature, but separated (safety)
-Key elements: vertical, horizontal, diagonal branches
-Helps us with our vulnerabilities
-Alleviate damage of outside world
Building is a heroic act
-Takig a stad i soethig ou a’t otol
-Earliest evidence of architecture
-Contact with nature
Architecture needs plans (horizontal cuts)
Architecture needs sections (vertical cuts)
Turkey: 6000-5900 BC
-Come out of caves for agriculture
-Obsidian trade (volcanic glass)
-Community = Economy = Architecture
-Posts (verticals) and lintels (horizontal) with mud
-Doors on roofs
-Roads only on outside (barriers)
Mesopotamia and Ziggurat 通靈塔
Stonehenge (England) basic example of posts and lintels
-Circles of stones
-Megaliths (big stones) 25 feet high
-Solar calendar (for harvesting/agriculture)
-Oe ou oe out of the ae ad a’t el solel o aials, eed to haest fo food
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-Sunrise of solstices (June 21) (day is at its longest)
-Transcends the Earth and the heavens (interrupter of mystic motion of space)
-Helps us remember
-We a lie ithout ahitetue, oship ithout he, ut e aot eee ithout he –
John Ruskin
-What you lose is far more than a building (Twin Towers)
-Buildings have a magical and mediating purpose
-Decision: against nature or build with nature
-Need for architecture in mortality (Mortality impels us to do something with our lives)
Mesopotamia Architecture
-The lad etee the ies Tigis ad Euphates
-Cradle 發源地 of civilization (major development of architecture)
-Rivers (w/ rain & mt.) are lifelines of these civilizations (no life without river)
-Rain, mountains (river source) very important (gods of society)
-Only place where three continents collide (trade from all)
-Topographically interesting (north- hills/rocks, south- flat/hot)
-Central and southern areas use mud bricks
-First religion, literature, astronomy, numbers, wheel, bread, beer (thick, milkshake), city-state
-Sumerians, Akkadians, Neo-Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, Neo-Babylonians (many
rulers controlled Mesopotamia) (chronologically)
-Architecture is very conservative 保守 (despite multiple cultures)
-Temples are places where gods touched down (destroyed = roam free again)
South Mesopotamia (Sumerian) 3200-3000 BCE
-Came from modern day Iran
-Came from mountains
-If you control it, it was yours
-God would give back to you, if you treated it right
-Sacred mountain for White Temple of Anu (Sky God)
-Built of mud bricks
-Painted gleaming white
-4 story building
-Figures who built it in between kings and priests (in communication with gods)
-Public space around temple (inside forbidden)
-Norm dictates form (origins in structure)
-et-ais appoah stat do elo, ad ok ou a up to top of agial outai
-eeetial liig itual ad o-direct process)
-Communicate with gods about concerns
-“taia to heae
-Sides have corrugated aka corrugated walls (like cardboard) (water flow off, visual (pointing up),
light and shadow, looks solid (massive))
-Cella: the main chamber of a temple or shrine
-Only certain privileged people go inside (average joes are outside)
Victory Stele of Naram-“i Akkadia; Ia  BCE; ’ high
-Naram-Sin crowns himself king
-King (priest-like) in charge of city-state
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-In proximity to mountain
-Trampling enemies below
-Wearing crown
-Body style (bare shoulder)
-Starts transition of importance of kings
Eshnunna, Temple and Palace Compound, 2600 BCE
-Priests and Kings are together (kings are NOT gods)
-Shifted angle between palace and temple (not on the same level)
-Corrugated walls on temple (sturdiness)
-No mountain style for temple
-Throne room between palace and temple
-Architecture of intimidation (King at the end of a long room)
Ur, Ziggurat; Neo-Sumerian, 2100 BCE
-Temple on top of mountain
-Ziggurat: a stepped or staged tower that houses a temple at the top
-2000 years before started building these structures
-et-ais appoah
-50 feet high (5 stories)
-Sudam Husain rebuilt structures
-All temples oriented to cardinal points (each corner points north, south, east, or west)
-Temple was city center
-Entirely made of bricks (painted)
-Recessed 嵌入式 and projecting 突出 walls
-King describes how Gods told them to build temple
-Pipes and tunnels inside to get rid of water from building drying, rain, etc.
-Mountain in the middle of nowhere here = temple
-Egypt mountain in the middle of nowhere = tomb
-King has a private place at the top of the temple
-VS. CatalHoyuk, Turkey (6000-5900): less of a democratic society
-Up to this point, city belongs to Gods (home, temple)
-Theocracy (ruling with religion)
Statue of King Gudea, Neo-Sumerian 2100 BCE
-On his lap is one of the earliest architecture plan
-King is architect and messenger with Gods
-Pla of a teple? Kig’s desig ee uilt Had ougated alls
-King is becoming more powerful
-White House, Vatican descendants of these kinds of palaces
Khorsabad, Citadel of King Sargon II: Assyrian, 720-705 BCE
-City-states become
-Corrugated 波狀的 walls used for defense
-1 mile x 1 mile citadel (never finished)
-Citadel: city within a city
-City corners and palace in cardinal directions
-Protecting himself from his own people (not surrounded)
-King starts to replace Gods
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Document Summary

Style of a structure and it reflects the time period, culture. From caves to cathedrals (30,000 bc 13000 bc) Architectural history is the study of buildings as cultural artifacts. Taki(cid:374)g a sta(cid:374)d i(cid:374) so(cid:373)ethi(cid:374)g (cid:455)ou (cid:272)a(cid:374)"t (cid:272)o(cid:374)t(cid:396)ol. Stonehenge (england) basic example of posts and lintels. O(cid:374)(cid:272)e (cid:455)ou (cid:272)o(cid:373)e out of the (cid:272)a(cid:448)e a(cid:374)d (cid:272)a(cid:374)"t (cid:396)el(cid:455) solel(cid:455) o(cid:374) a(cid:374)i(cid:373)als, (cid:374)eed to ha(cid:396)(cid:448)est fo(cid:396) food. Sunrise of solstices (june 21) (day is at its longest) Transcends the earth and the heavens (interrupter of mystic motion of space) (cid:862)we (cid:373)a(cid:455) li(cid:448)e (cid:449)ithout a(cid:396)(cid:272)hite(cid:272)tu(cid:396)e, (cid:449)o(cid:396)ship (cid:449)ithout he(cid:396), (cid:271)ut (cid:449)e (cid:272)a(cid:374)(cid:374)ot (cid:396)e(cid:373)e(cid:373)(cid:271)e(cid:396) (cid:449)ithout he(cid:396)(cid:863) . What you lose is far more than a building (twin towers) Need for architecture in mortality (mortality impels us to do something with our lives) (cid:862)the la(cid:374)d (cid:271)et(cid:449)ee(cid:374) the (cid:396)i(cid:448)e(cid:396)s(cid:863) (cid:894)tig(cid:396)is a(cid:374)d euph(cid:396)ates(cid:895) Cradle of civilization (major development of architecture) Rivers (w/ rain & mt. ) are lifelines of these civilizations (no life without river)