PPPM 205 Study Guide - Final Guide: Urban Renewal, A Pattern Language, Clean Air Act (United States)

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Published on 19 Oct 2017
School
University of Oregon
Department
Planning, Public Policy and Management
Course
PPPM 205
Professor
Intro.
Case study: Aalborg, Denmark by Bent Flyvberg
- Study: 50-60% gross revenues came from customers arriving by car
- Reality: equally divided between drivers, pedestrians/cyclists/moped drivers, and transit users
- Result: The city planners were subsequently blocked from strategies like eduig a taffi o
facilitating walking, biking, or transit
What is planning?
- A comprehensive definition of planning/what a planner actually does has become increasingly
elusive 難以捉摸
- Planning is emerging as a local, regional, national and increasingly international tool
- The otio of a sustaiale futue leads eal ee otepoa plaig deate i the
developed world
- In the era of climate change, the planning profession should position itself as an international
collaborative forum that promotes ecological and socially sustainable urban and rural
development
- The traditional municipal planner should no longer be the pinnacle of the profession; rather, it
should be one role among many
Physical & Land Use Planning
- Ideas of freestanding buildings, wide streets and lots, and distaste for density are entrenched
in our society
- Zoning and other tools allow planners to control the types of land uses and built form, and
protect public uses
- Plaers ust e refletive about their values
- Planning processes today incorporate technical skills and the ability to facilitate public
participation
Housing Reforms of the Late 1800s
- Before:
o Tenements had dark, narrow airshafts
o Bad plumbing
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o Ma failies to oe floo
o Only four of foutee oos o eah floo had idos
o Lots ee 
o Buildings 6-7 stories high
- After (cause of NYC Tenement Reforms):
o Inspectors enforced restrictive housing legislations (proposed by Lawrence Veiller)
o Buildigs ould hae to hae a  spae at the rear for light and air
o U/H-shaped buildings would allow light and air into each unit, and the courtyards would
act as playgrounds for children
o Families would each have their own private hall and bathroom (outside toilets were
banned)
- Books (e.g., How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis) spurred 刺激 political action
Examples of Early Suburbs
- Riverside, N.J., by Olmsted, 1869
- Llewellyn Park, N.J., 1853
- Redburn, N.J., by Stain and Wright, 1923
- Neighohood uits,  Claee Pe, 
- Garden City, by Ebenezer Howard
Reading: City Planning for Girls, by Wirka
- Vies the Cit Beautiful oeet though the les of soial ode
- Phsial eioet as elieed to ifluee soial poles e.g., jueile deliue i
1920s
o Walking=streetwalking
o Sharing bedrooms with family members=impropriety
o City=dangerous, illicit den of evil
- Controlling living spaces, policing 治安 streets, exclusion of women from planning profession
Reading: Legal Basis for Planning, by Levy
- Aeia uiipalities ae eatues of the state
o Dillos ule  states & Hoe ule states loal goeets hae all poe that is
not forbidden to them by the state)
- Eminent domain
o The state has the right to take property for public purposes with just compensation
o One particularly contentious use:
[after the passage of Housing Act (1949)] taking of lands to transfer to
developers to build new housing and commercial
[1954] Supreme Court case ruled this was constitutional
[2005] Kelo vs. New London case reignited public contempt
[2006] 28 of 44 state legislatures passes bills limiting eminent domain from
taking private land and transferring It to a private party
- Zoning laws
o Aims to protect property rights and the public domain (e.g. heights, land uses)
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o Are written to include elements such as public safety, welfare, and health which
protects them from Fifth Amendment 修訂 court challenges
o NYC eated the fist zoig odiae 條例(1916)
o Some view zoning as unconstitutional 違憲 as the uncompensated taking of land (lots
of backlash in the past 25 years)
Can contribute by police brutality, political exclusion of blacks from city
government, urban renewal, inadequate housing, unemployment, poverty, and
rapid change in the racial composition of neighborhoods
- States enable/require municipalities to prepare and adopt master plans
o suitable locations for commercial, housing and mixed-use development
o locations where the city should increase density, use redevelopment, or intervene in
other ways
o opportunities to extend and/or improve open space, recreational areas, and civic
facilities
o strategies from increasing economic development
o environmental, historic and cultural resources that need conservation
o strategies for solving congestion and improving transit services
o Exemplar 模範 master planning: Vancouverism 溫哥華主義
Innovative planning controls
Citizen participation
Large-scale master planning
Urban design panel
The podium-tower model
- Federal government transfers funds to state governments and offers grants to municipalities for
key types of development
o E.g. Clean Water Act (1977), Clean Air Act (1970)
Characteristics of Ideal Cities
- Low density
- Limitless space
- Streets become less important
- E.g., Broadacre City (concept), by F.L.W., 1934; La Ville Radiuse (concept), by Le Corbusier, 1935
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Document Summary

Study: 50-60% gross revenues came from customers arriving by car. Reality: equally divided between drivers, pedestrians/cyclists/moped drivers, and transit users. Result: the city planners were subsequently blocked from strategies like (cid:396)edu(cid:272)i(cid:374)g (cid:272)a(cid:396) t(cid:396)a (cid:272) o(cid:396) facilitating walking, biking, or transit. A comprehensive definition of planning/what a planner actually does has become increasingly elusive . Planning is emerging as a local, regional, national and increasingly international tool. The (cid:374)otio(cid:374) of a (cid:862)sustai(cid:374)a(cid:271)le futu(cid:396)e(cid:863) leads (cid:374)ea(cid:396)l(cid:455) e(cid:448)e(cid:396)(cid:455) (cid:272)o(cid:374)te(cid:373)po(cid:396)a(cid:396)(cid:455) pla(cid:374)(cid:374)i(cid:374)g de(cid:271)ate i(cid:374) the developed world. In the era of climate change, the planning profession should position itself as an international collaborative forum that promotes ecological and socially sustainable urban and rural development. The traditional municipal planner should no longer be the pinnacle of the profession; rather, it should be one role among many. Ideas of freestanding buildings, wide streets and lots, and distaste for density are entrenched in our society.