PSY 202 Midterm: Psych Notes Midterm #1 Chapters 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 13

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PSY 202
Jordan Pennefather

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 13 -Psychological Science is the study, through research, of the mind, brain, and behavior -Most people function as intuitive psychologists, b many of our intuitions and beliefs are wrong Culture- Beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist w/in a group of people who share a common language and environment Nature/Nurture debate- arguments whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. Nature and Nurture depend on each other, influences cannot be separated Mind/Body Problem- are mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the physical brain’s subjective experience? Introspection is when you think about your emotions, motivations, thoughts, and behaviors. Structuralism-idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components…like periodic table of elements…an understanding of the basic elements of conscious experience would provide scientific basis for understanding the mind Stream of consciousness- mind is ever-changing and in continuous series of thought Functionalism- mind came into existence over the course of human evolution, mind best understood by examining functions and purpose, not structure Evolutionary Theory- species change over time, some of the changes (physical characteristics, skills, and abilities) increase chances of surviving and reproducing. These changes are called adaptations Natural Selection- changes that are adaptive are passed along and those that are not adaptive are not passed. Species that are better adapted to environment will survive Gestalt Theory- The whole personal experience is different from the sum of its elements. Unconscious- mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness Psychoanalysis- bring contents of unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. Unconscious influences behavior Behaviorism- emphasizes role of environmental effects in producing observable behavior(nurture) Cognitive Psychology- study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making Cognitive Neuroscience- study of neural mechanisms underlying thought, learning, perception, language, and memory Social Psychology- study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Personality Psychology- study of characteristic thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in people and how they vary across social situations. Psychology began with Wilhelm Wundt’s lab in 1879 Science Informs psychological treatments- psych disorders are influenced by both nature (biological factors) and nurture (environmental factors). No universal treatment exists for psychological disorders. Advances in neuroscience have revealed the working brain. Mapping of human genome has furthered role of genetics in analyzing both behavior and disease. (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. 3 developments in the biological revolution that helped guide psychological science -developments in the understanding of brain chemistry -the Human Genome Project -brain scan methods which allow scientists to watch a working brain Major Biases in Psychological Reasoning -Ignoring Evidence (confirmation bias): people place great importance on evidence that support their beliefs. Downplay evidence that don’t match their beliefs. -Failing to accurately judge source credibility -Misunderstanding or not using statistics: people generally fail to understand to use stats to interpret events around them -Seeing relationships that don’t exist: misconception that two events that happen at the same time must somehow be related -using relative comparisons: information that comes first has a strong influence on how people answer the question -Accepting after-the-fact explanations: people expect the world to make sense, so they come up with explanations for why events happen -Taking mental shortcuts: follow simple rules to make decisions, can lead to inaccurate judgements -Failing to see own inadequacies (self-serving bias): 90% of people believe they are better than average drivers Chapter 2 4 Primary Goals for Science- description, prediction, control, and explanation. The goals of psychological science are the describe what a phenomenon is, predict when it will occur, control what causes it to occur, and explain why it occurs. Form a Hypothesis-Conduct Literature Review (lit related to theory)-Design a Study-Report the Results (research journals, conferences)-Analyze Data (see whether data supports hypothesis)- Conduct Study (get participants) Hawthorne effect- the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed Three Main Types of Research methods: descriptive, correlational, and experimental Variable- something that can vary and that a researcher can manipulate and measure Independent variable- variable that gets manipulated Dependent- gets measured Descriptive Research: observe behavior to describe the behavior objectively ex: Case study- intensively examining an unusual person or organization Participant observation- researcher is involved in situation Naturalistic observation- researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change situation Reactivity- occurs when knowledge that ones being observed alters the behavior Observer Bias- errors in observation that occur because of observer’s expectations Experimenter Expectancy Effect- Actual change in the behavior of people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer Correlational Studies: describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them Positive Correlation- relationship between two variables which both increase or decrease together. Negative, one variable increase while the other decreases Directionality problem- cannot determine which variable maybe have caused changes in the other variable. “does less sleep cause stress? Or does stress cause less sleep?” Third Variable Problem- researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; therefore, the researcher cannot be confident that another unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of the differences in variables of interest. Data Reliability- stability and consistency of a measure over time Data Validity- variables measure what they are supposed to measure Descriptive Data- measures mean, median, mode Inferential data- makes inferences and predictions about a population based on a sample of data taken from the population in question. Chapter 3 Neurons- basic units of nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. Operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals --The nerves responsible for sensing a stimulus and sending information about the stimulus to your central nervous system are called afferent neurons. The nerves that carry signals away from the central nervous system in order to initiate an action are called efferent neurons. Two Divisions of Nervous System: Central Nervous System- brain and spinal cord, massive # of neurons Peripheral Nervous System- All nerves in body not associated with CNS, includes somatic and autonomic nervous systems Somatic Nervous System- skin, muscles, and joints send signals to spinal cord and brain and vice versa. Autonomic Nervous System- glands and internal organs Peripheral Nervous System- Somatic Nervous System: transmits sensory signals and motor signals between Central nervous system and the skin, muscles and joints Autonomic Nervous System: transmits sensory signals and motor signals between Central nervous system and body’s glands and internal organs Sympathetic Division- division autonomic nervous system; prepares body for action (dilates pupils, increases heartbeat, inhibits digestion) Parasympathetic Division- division autonomic nervous system, returns body back to resting state 3 Types of Neurons: Sensory- detect information from physical world and pass info to brain Motor Neurons- direct muscles to contract or relax, producing movement Interneurons- communicate within local or short-distances only found in CNS Neuron Structure: Dendrites- branch like extensions Cell body- site where info is collected and integrated Axon- long narrow outgrowth which info is transmitted to other neurons Terminal buttons- small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse Synapse- the gap which chemical communication occurs between neurons Resting membrane potential- electrical charge of a neuron which it’s not active Action potential (neural firing)- electrical signal that passes along axon and causes release of chemicals from terminal buttons Myelin Sheath- fatty material made up of glial cells; insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along axon Nodes of Ranvier- small gaps of exposed axon, where action potentials take place All-or-none principle- when a neuron fires, it fires with same potency each time, a neuron either fires or not, cannot partially fire, although frequency varies -Inside each terminal button are neurotransmitters, which are stored in vesicles. When released by the vesicles, the neurotransmitters convey signal across the synapse to postsynaptic cells. The neurotransmitters then attach themselves to receptors. Receptors- protein molecules Three Major Events that terminate the neurotransmitters influence in the synapse: Reuptake- neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons Enzyme Deactivation- enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in synapse Auto-receptors- Neurotransmitters bind with receptors on presynaptic neuron Agonists- drugs that enhance actions of neurotransmitters Antagonists- inhibit actions Acetylcholine- neurotransmitter is responsible for motor control, after moving across synapse Ach binds with muscle receptors making muscles contract or relax Epinephrine- bursts of energy after event that is exciting or threatening Norepinephrine- states of arousal, heightened sensitivity Serotonin- emotional states, impulse control, dreaming; low levels correlate with sad and anxious moods Dopamine- motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement, lack of it can lead to Parkinson’s disease GABA- calms anxiety, inhibitory transmitter Glutamate- excitatory transmitter, aid learning and memory by strengthening synaptic connections Endorphins- Natural pain reduction and reward Broca’s area- area in brain crucial for language production Polygraph- lie detector, measures changes in bodily functions like heart rate and blood pressure Electroencephalograph- measures brains electrical activity Brain Imaging methods measure changes in rate, or speed, of the flow of blood to different regions of the brain. Brain Stem- extension of spinal cord, thicker and more complex. Houses structures that control functions of survival (heart rate, breathing, swallowing, urination, vomiting, orgasm) Cerebellum- motor learning and motor memory, operates unconsciously. voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth and balanced muscular activity. Thalamus- receives almost all incoming sensory information (except for smell), organizes it, and relays it to cortex. Hypothalamus- Regulation of body functions, like temperature, blood pressure, glucose levels. Hippocampus- Formation of memories, important in navigating environments, shrimp Amygdala- good to responding to stimuli that elicit fear. Developed over the course of evolution to protect animals from danger. involved in emotions of fear and aggression. Basal Ganglia- coordination of movement. Cerebral Cortex- outer layer of brain tissue, site of all thoughts, perceptions, and complex behaviors. lobes include the frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. Corpus Callosum- massive bridge of millions of axons, connects hemispheres and slows info to flow between them Occipital lobe- region of the cerebral cortex, important for vision Parietal lobe- region of cerebral cortex, sense of touch and attention to the environment. Temporal Lobes- region of CC, processes auditory info, specialized visual areas (recognizes detailed objects like faces), object and face perception Frontal lobes- region of CC, important for movement. Carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning. In the mid 1800s, Phineas Gage, a railroad worker, miraculously survived an accident where a large iron pole was said to have been driven into his head, specifically into the frontal lobe. After the incident, Gage's personality was said to have changed drastically. Prefrontal Cortex- front most portion of the frontal lobes, important for attention, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality. Split Brain- corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive info d
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