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BIOL 3113 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Atp Hydrolysis, Electron MicroscopeExam

Course Code
BIOL 3113
Barbara S
Study Guide

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(80 points - 2 points per question). Answer each question below by placing a circle around the
letter of the response that best answers the question.
1. A reaction that is energetically unfavorable:
a. will occur if there is an enzyme for it
b. will occur if it is enzymaticly linked to an energetically favorable reaction
c. will occur only if linked to ATP hydrolysis
d. will occur only if linked to GTP hydrolysis
e. will occur only if linked to NADH reduction
2. In metabolism, the hydride ion is a source of:
a. entropy
b. reducing power
c. oxidizing power
d. electrical energy
e. high energy bonds
3. For which of the following would you use the electron microscope rather that a light
a. to observe individual cells while removing them from a cell culture
b. to watch organelles moving in a living eukaryotic cell
c. to look at cells stained with fluorescent dyes
d. to see ribosomes
e. to study moving bacteria
4. The enzymes responsible for oxidative catabolism in eucaryotic cells are located in the:
a. cytosol
b. plasma membrane
c. mitochondria
d. chloroplasts
e. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
5. What is meant by “polarity” of a polypeptide chain?
a. the two ends have different electrical charges
b. it has a 3’-end and a 5’ end
c. the amino acids are arranged with their amino and carboxyl termini oriented in opposite
directions, giving the chain two distinct ends
d. it is composed of polar molecules
e. it folds in such as way that the polar side groups are oriented toward the polar water molecules
of the surrounding medium

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6. What conditions are necessary for non-covalent bonds to establish stable interactions between
a. there must be an equal number of positive and negatively charged atoms
b. there must be a large number of ionic bonds
c. the two molecules must fit together sufficiently well that they can form a large number of
noncovalent bonds
d. there must be enough hydrophobic groups to bring the molecules together so that a sufficient
number of noncovalent bonds can form
e. only covalent bonds can form stable intermolecular interactions
7. Living organisms require a continual supply of energy to exist because:
a. they are defying the laws of thermodynamics
b. they convert it into heat energy which powers biosynthetic reactions
c. they are creating order out of disorder inside their cells
d. they are causing the entropy in the universe to decrease
e. they are closed systems isolated from the rest of the universe
8. Which of the following is the most distinctive feature of eucaryotic cells?
a. Enzymes of glycolysis.
b. ribosomes
c. DNA
d. a plasma membrane
e. a nucleus
9. Glucose, galactose and mannose are examples of:
a. ions
b. isomers
c. epitopes
d. lipids
e. none of the above
10. The most common type of reaction for attaching the subunits that make up a macromolecule is:
a. hydrolysis
b. hydration
c. dehydration
d. reduction
e. oxidation

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11. The energy input required to initiate an energetically favorable chemical reaction is called the:
a. free energy
b. activation energy
c. chemical bond energy
d. kinetic energy
e. potential energy
12. Because of the second law of thermodynamics, what must always be produced during
biosynthetic reactions?
a. ATP
b. hydride ions
d. heat
e. carbon dioxide
13. During oxidative catabolism, CO2 is produced as a by-product. Where does it come from?
a. from the atmospheric oxygen that is consumed during respiration
b. from hydrolysis of water
c. from the oxidation of carbon atoms from glucose and fatty acids coupled with the reduction of
atmospheric oxygen
d. from the reduction of carbon atoms from glucose and fatty acids coupled with the oxidation of
atmospheric oxygen
e. from the oxidation of the carbon atoms from pyruvate coupled with the reduction of NAD+
14. The oxidation of sugars by glycolysis:
a. occurs only in aerobic organisms
b. generates carbon dioxide
c. produces a net gain of ATP
d. occurs in mitochondria
e. uses NADH as a source of energy
15. How can the binding of a phosphate group or a nucleotide to a protein alter its activity?
a. by causing a change in the 3-dimensional shape of the protein
b. by introducing additional charges into the binding site of the protein, thereby altering its ability
to bind ligands
c. by providing the high energy bonds required to drive the reaction that the protein carries out
d. by priming the binding site, making it easier for a larger ligand to bind
e. It can’t
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