[BIO 110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (68 pages long!)

59 views68 pages
7 Feb 2017
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

U of R
BIO 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Proteins
1. Antifreeze proteins
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic faces
Hydrophilic faces the ice, hydrophobic repels
Binds to ice crystals and prevents them from growing
2. Mucins
Glycoproteins
Have carb chain attached to protein, helps extend the molecule
Contains disulfide bonds (cysteine molecules) which makes the molecule
extensive
Dimerization domain in the center, which makes it a long strand
Small globular regions causes hydrophobic effect to occur and expels water
molecules
3. Hemoglobin
T State-Tense (Low pH, High CO2, Low O2)
i. Low affinity for oxygen
ii. Before hemo reaches lungs, it is in the T state
iii. When first oxygen binds to hemo, it reaches the R state
iv. When it goes into the muscles, it becomes T to release the oxygen
R State-Relaxed (High pH, High CO2, low O2)
i. High affinity for oxygen
ii. Hemoglobin turns into
Carbon Dioxide and pH
i. HCO3- is formed in presence of CO2, which lowers pH and causes extra
H+ ion to float around
ii. When there is a lot of CO2, there are a lot of H+ ions then which lowers
pH
iii. Low pH puts the hemo in the T state
iv. H+ ions interact with ionic bonds in hemoglobin, altering the charges and
affecting the bonding in the R state
Oxygen concentration When oxygen binds to hemo, hemo changes state into R
state
i. The shape changes in hemo causes a higher affinity for O2
ii. At first, it’s harder to bind but once the first one binds it becomes easier
Exhibits positive cooperativity of binding
i. It becomes easier to bind as more binds
4. Insulin
A receptor
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Only needs one molecule to be activated, so it becomes harder to bind as more
molecules bind
Negative cooperativity of binding
When there is low insulin in the body, the cells refuse to take extra so the
receptors close once an insulin is bound
DNA
1. Avery et al experiment
The mice experiment with smooth and rough strains
Rough isn’t deadly, smooth is, heat killed smooth isn’t, heat killed smooth with R
is
Took turns removing each of the 4 macromolecules and found that only when
DNA was removed the mice lived (which shows that DNA moved from the dead
smooth strain to the rough strain and caused it to become deadly)
Before this, they thought proteins were hereditary material
2. Hershey Chase experiment
Experiment with bacteriophages
Radiolabelled phosphate and sulfur in two different bacteriophages to see whether
it would be proteins or DNA that are hereditary material
Injected both of these phages into bacteria cells, blended and centrifuged it, and
found radiolabelled phosphate inside the cellular components whereas the
radiolabeled sulfur did not show up in the cellular material
So DNA is the material of heredity over proteins
3. PCR
Type of DNA replication outside of the cell
Ingredients: Mg+, buffer solution, template strands, nucleotides, DNA
polymerase that is heat stabilized (Taq polymerase does not denature when
heated), primers
Heat DNA to separate two strands, cool it, add primers to the strands that are
complementary to where replication starts, and add DNA polymerase which starts
replication process, and repeat this
Know process of PCR!!
4. DNA replication in cells
DNA polymerase cannot start replication without DNA primase, which is a DNA
dependent RNA polymerase that builds primers
DNA polymerase adds bases onto the primers
Enzymes: Primase, DNA polymerase, Helicase (unzips DNA), Single Stranded
Binding Proteins (bind to individual strands to maintain stability), DNA Gyrase
(prevents twisting of DNA)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class