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PSY 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hallucinogen, Habituation, Absolute Threshold

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PSY 101
Study Guide

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Psychology Study Guide Exam #1
Prologue: History
-Psychology – the study of human behavior and mental activities
-470 – 399 B.C. – Socrates thought about psychology as pain/pleasure and the five senses,
imagination, desire
-384 – 322 B.C. – Plato and Aristotle though about psychology as learning, memory,
motivation, perception, personality
oNicaean Ethics: What does it mean to live the good life?
Honea: the maximum of pleasure and minimum of pain
Accomplished through Eudemonia – a virtuous life
-460 – 377 B.C. – Hippocrates felt the brain is the interpreter of human consciousness
oEach one is born with a certain temperament and our bodily fluids are connected
with our temperaments. There are four personalities
-1596 – 1650 – Descartes
odualism – body is a physical structure and the mind is a spiritual entity. The brain
and spirituality connect through the soul, which he though was the pineal gland
ocouldn’t study the brain
-1588–1679 – Thomas Hobbes
omonoism – entire human experience are physical processes from the mind. Both
mind and body can be studied scientifically
-1821 – 1894 – Hermann von Helmhotz
ostudied sensory receptors in eyes and ears, the speed of neuron messaging, color
vision, physical space
ohard core reductionalist (bio  chem  physics)
-1856 – 1925 – Emil Kraepelin
ocompared mental disorders for physical illness
o1st comprehensive systems for classifying mental disorders
-1825 – 1893 – Jean Charcot
ocould cure hysteria through hypnosis
-1879 – Wundt birthed psychology
ocreated an experiment which calculated unconscious response time of a sound v.
conscious awareness of a sound
1/10 of a second when not consciously aware of the sound, 2/10 of a
second when consciously aware of the sound
-Branches of Psychology:
Titchener tried to find the mind’s structure through self-reflective
Didn’t care about the function
Introspection proved too unreliable
Observers must be smart, motivated and verbal
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Even if they were ^, it is hard to know why we think, feel how we
Replaced structuralism
William James focused on understanding why certain areas did certain
things, had specific functions. Also understand how they evolved
William James:
oAdmitted the first woman into his graduate program (Mary
Whiton Calkins)
oFreudian Psychology
Freud helped move psych to the unconscious because he thinks that
experience is driven by our unconscious
Emphasized how our experiences in childhood affect our behavior as
Grew to include behaviorism
Thorndike – animal intelligence
Pavlov – classical conditioning
Watson – classical condition in human being
Skinner – opulent conditioning (rewards and punishment)
1920 – John B. Watson and Skinner redefined psychology as “the
scientific study of observable behavior”
lasted until 1960
oHumanistic psychology
Created by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Focused on the ways the current environmental influences can nurture or
limit our growth potential. Also the importance of love.
Humans are more than reacting machines that respond to stimuli
oCognitive revolution
Returned psych to the mental process and how we perceive and retain info
We interpret and respond aptly to stimuli. We are still in control
-Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
oLevels of analysis – looking at a concept from different angles in order to grasp
its entirety. By itself, it is incomplete
Ch. 1.1: The Need for Psychological Science
-Hindsight bias – after an event, everyone claims to have known all along, yet outcome is
seldom foreseen
-Overconfidence – we think we know more than we do
-Perceiving Order in Random – we want order so we see order where there is none
-The Scientific Attitude:
oCuriosity – a passion to explore and understand
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oEmpirical approach – proof in the pudding, must be able to demonstrate one’s
oCurious skepticism – demand empirical reasoning before trusting one’s word
oHumility – awareness of one’s ability to err and an acceptance to surprises and
new perspectives
-Critical thinking
oCritical thinking – examines assumptions, evaluates evidence and assesses
1.2: How to ask and answer questions?
-Scientific method – a self-correcting process for observing and analyzing certain
-Types of measurement
oSelf-report – ask participants about themselves, prone to bias because people
distort their responses to look favorable and also are sometimes unable to access
what is being asked of them
oBehavioral observations – observe others; less prone to bias because behavior is
objective, but requires inferencing
oArchival records – look at records of people’s behavior; know that it is not one’s
own error, but records could not be complete
-Theory – more than a “mere hunch” – an organized set of principles that describes,
predicts and explains a phenomenon
oLaw of parsimony – if there are two or more theories that provide adequate
explanation of the same phenomenon then choose the simplest one
-Scientific inquiry v. Speculative argument
oHuman nature is deceptive – even to ourselves
oMore accurate and less biased
oAdds predictive value
oLimitations of intuition and common sense (i.e. rewards can be bad because it
reduces the natural desire to accomplish something san-reward)
oTest hypothesis (descriptive, correlational, experimental)
oCase study
Take an individual and assume they share what you are looking for with
many people
Time consuming
Atypical people are of no use
Watching the behavior of many people without manipulating environment
Doesn’t explain behavior, but describes it
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