PSY 101 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Psy, Anxiety, Major Depressive Disorder

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PSY 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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PSY 101 LECTURE 1 : A Brief History of Psychology & The Methods of Psychology
Psychology is all around us in various ways.
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind
Empirical psychologists study through experimentations and observations
Theoretical psychologists develop notions about psychological principles
Applied psychologists bring basic research out of the lab into the real world in order to
solve important social problems.
Psychologists study behavior.
Study conscious/unconscious mental states from observable behaviors.
Historical roots of psych
- Socrates: theorized about imagination, desire, etc
- Plato and Aristotle: students of Socrates, theorized about learning & memory,
emotions, perception, and personality.
- Hippocrates: human brain = interpreter of consciousness
- Galen: first person to think about different personality of each person aka
“humor” theory of personality
- Rene Descartes: the body is a physical structure, the mind is spiritual entity. They
only interact between tiny structures in the brain, soul.
- Thomas Hobbes: The entire human experiences including perception, thoughts
and feelings can be studied scientifically
- Hermann von Helmholtz: examined color vision, perception
- Emil Kraepelin: Likened mental disorders to physical illness
- Jean Charcot: cure nervous disorders through hypnosis
Psychology develops as a science because of Wilhelm Wundt
Components of the experience = sensations and feelings
Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Structuralism began with Edward Titchener. Titchener used introspection and studied
time perception.
Functionalism began with William James. Processes of thoughts evolved because they
were adapted.
The rise of the unconsciousness
-psychoanalysis: theory of personality, approach to therapy, biggest influence on modern
thought
- psychology behavior
Edward L. THorndike: studied animal
Ivan Pavolov: classical conditioning in animal
John B.Watson: classical conditioning in human
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B.F. Skinner
Cognitive Revolution
Cognition refers to the mental processes that intervene between a stimulus and a
response
Forming questions and finding answers- start to attempt to find the fact.
Fact = something that’s known to be true. We can see/observe in the nature.
Theory = an organized set of principles (ideas) used to describe, predict, and explain a
phenomenon.
Theory is useful for understanding.
Law of parsimony: Simpler theories are better theories. (Between two theories about a
phenomenon, smaller set of explanatory concept - better theory)
Many questions are raised by common sense, but it’s very limited.
Scientific attitude: curiosity (passion to explore and understand through scientific
inquiry), skepticism (the belief that some ideas will not hold up under scientific inquiry),
humility (the belief that one can air in the scientific input)
The scientific method:
1. a.Theory is testable (you can make a prediction, a hypothesis)
b. Theory is also falsifiable (theory is able to be shown false)
2. Specify the hypothesis: Hypothesis is specific testable prediction about how two or
more variables are related.
3. Design a study: we need to investigate our hypothesis in an empirical way.
4. Collect data: self report our psychological state
5. Test the hypothesis: run statistical analysis
6. Publish or specify a new hypothesis
Research settings: Laboratory research occurs in college or university setting.
Field research : understand behavior in real-world setting.
Psychological Measurements
- Self-report measurements: ask about their own behaviors and feelings. Easy and quick.
Info may be inaccurate or misleading.
- Behavior observations: advantage- infer mental state from behavior
- Archival records
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Document Summary

Psy 101 lecture 1 : a brief history of psychology & the methods of psychology. Psychology is all around us in various ways. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. Empirical psychologists study through experimentations and observations. Theoretical psychologists develop notions about psychological principles. Applied psychologists bring basic research out of the lab into the real world in order to solve important social problems. Study conscious/unconscious mental states from observable behaviors. Plato and aristotle: students of socrates, theorized about learning & memory, emotions, perception, and personality. Hippocrates: human brain = interpreter of consciousness. Galen: first person to think about different personality of each person aka. Rene descartes: the body is a physical structure, the mind is spiritual entity. They only interact between tiny structures in the brain, soul. Thomas hobbes: the entire human experiences including perception, thoughts and feelings can be studied scientifically. Hermann von helmholtz: examined color vision, perception.

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