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PSY 101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cerebral Cortex, The Conscious Mind, Sleep DeprivationPremium

Course Code
PSY 101
Christopher Niemiec
Study Guide

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PSY 101:Intro to Psychology: Lecture 1: Psychology as a Science and The Biology of the
Questions and Answers
Inquiry vs speculative argument, effect is something we can see, observe, or be seen in
nature and is true.
All facts are compiled to form theories
A theory is a set of principles that describes, predicts, and explains a
Law of parsimony- if 2 theories provide an adequate explanation, the theory that
is shorter is prefered over the longer one.
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior.
As humans we are passionate about exploring and understanding
scientific phenomena.
To find answers to these theories we use the scientific method. Good theories are able
to produce a hypothesis, but they can also be falsifiable.A hypothesis a specific testable
prediction on the association between 2 variables.
Mental States and Biases
First bias - People distort responses that appear to be more favorable.
Second bias- Although people want to be truthful, we tend not to.
Psychological research and purpose.
First- to describe and theorize data.
second- to find correlation.
Third- is to see causation(one variable does not necessarily mean
that it causes the other)
Because of this we do case studies in hope that the in
depth look of a person will reveal something important
about people in general.
Parts of the Brain
Occipital Lobe- located in the back of the head base of the skull and its function
is primarily involved with vision .
sensory cortex- receives information from the touch receptors from the skin.
motor cortex- sends impulses to voluntary muscles
75 percent of cerebral cortex is involved in association areas such as higher level
Left hemisphere- is for the processing of the language 2 areas which is brocas
area is used for the production of fluent speech and wernicke's also helps in the
understanding and comprehend speech.
Frontal lobe-frontal lobe behind the forehead and its important because it helps
with movement.

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temporal lobe- above the ears and its involved in hearing and advance visual
PSY 101:Intro to Psychology: Lecture 2: The Conscious Mind and Sleep
biology of consciousness -evolutionary and cognitive neuroscience-
psychological processes are evolved processes because they have some
adaptive advantage.
cognitive neuroscience examines how brain activity is connected to our
consciousness and that specific neuroactivity is responsible for our stream of
We have different types of attention.
selective attention- describes our ability to maintain focus on the person
you're speaking despite the loud noise around you.
selective inattention-in our conscious lives many stimuli pass by us
Changed blindness- is change in our environment and failing to notice.
Sleep and its stages
5 Sleep stages
Stage 1- hypnagogic sensations
stage 2- sleep spindles
stage 3- transitional stage
stage 4- large slow delta waves
stage 5 -REM sleep where most dreaming takes place
sleep deprivation is associated with irritability, slowed
performance, and proneness to accidents, and obesity and
hypertension(high blood pressure).
Sleep theory -We sleep because it might of played a protective
role in history and because we avoid dangers with darkness.
Second theory- We sleep because it helps restore brain tissue.
Third theory is because it helps and restores memories.(ability to
recall events and information is improved.)
fourth theory- Sleep helps with creative thinking.
fifth theory- Sleep helps in the repairs/healing and growth process.
Types of dreams: Latent content and manifest content.
Latent-true meaning of our dreams if or dreams were not disguised
manifest-remembered content of dreams
We have 2 mechanisms as part of our dreams.
Dreamwork- latent content is transformed to manifest content.

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Dream interpretation-(is the process which manifest content is interpreted by
skilled listener or by psychoanalyst, and were able to resolve true content of our
Dream theories
Wish fulfillment- Dreams function to release energy associated with drives
that were unsatisfied with the previous drive.
Information processing- dreams help sort and encode our experiences
from the previous day.
Brain stimulation-while we sleep our brains are less aroused than when
awake and as a result the brain arousal provides needed stimulation
while the person sleeps.
Activations synthesis-neural activation spreads from the brainstem to the
cerebral cortex.
cognitive development- the idea that dreams represent the dreamers level
of development and of knowledge and understanding.
Social interaction in which a hypnotist that certain perceptions
feelings or thoughts will spontaneously occur.
Color, motion, deaf and tone
processing visual information and we only see red green yellow
and blue
Opponent processing theory
3 types of recessors is sensitive to opposing opponent colors and
its red vs green, yellow vs blue, black to white.
PSY 101:Intro to Psychology: Lecture 3: Nature vs Nurture
Proximity principle-states that we group nearby lines together.
Similarity principle- states that we group similar figures together.
Continuity principle- states that we perceive smooth and continuous patterns
rather than discontinuous patterns.
Connectedness principle- when stimuli are uniform and linked we perceive them
as a connected unit.
Principle of closure- states that we fill the gaps in visual stimuli.
Depth perception
allows us to perceive distance and it is innate(exist at birth). When infants
try to determine which closest they will use the cast shadow to see which
object is closest and when 5 months they show no tendency to use the
cast shadow
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