BIOL 355 Midterm: Project 1 - Part 2

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BIOL 355
Linda Martin- Morris

Project 1 - Lecture Part 2 Friday, April 21, 2017 10:44 AM • If tumor cells want to divide in order for the tumor to grow, it needs space to enlarge into; the ECM gets in the way. If it wants to split of and potentially metastasize, then it needs the ECM to give wayand allow the cell to migrate. • Proteins in the ECM: collagen, laminin, proteoglycans, fibronectin • MMP2 helps a tumor cell do what? They are made inside the cell, secreted and used to modify the extracellular matrix. MMP2 is not found in general purpose cells. In adults, it is mostly found in the environment of tumors. • Why do we see MMP2 production around tumor cells? It would be beneficial for a tumor cell to be able to modify its ECM to make room for growth and migration. • If MMP2 is eliminated from cells tumor paint still binds. MMPs can have their production turned up based on growth factors, the need for cells to migrate and grow. They help these processes by degrading the ECM. • When the ECMchanges, it can bind to integral membrane proteins that can communicate those changes to the inside of cells. • Annexin binds to many things including proteoglycans, glycoproteins, tissue plasminogen activators and collagen. Annexin can move in and out of cells under regulated circumstances. • A hypothesis is that annexin is found at higher levels outside of tumor cells. • Annexin binds to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which is useful for breaking up plasminogen into a more dissolved form called plasmin. à helps activate MMPs (perhaps annexin is turned up in cells that want to manufacture more MMPs- whenthey need to grow tumors or move cells) • DAPI: stains nucleus (blue) • Isolectin: a protein that is found on blood vessel walls on epithelial cells. • Blood vessels will not be as present (upregulated) in annexin A2loss of function genotypes. Less annexin A2 = less isolectin : not very much angiogenesis (bloo
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