[PSYCH 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (89 pages long)

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PSYCH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psychology 101
Prof. Jacqueline Pickrell
Autumn 2016
Lecture 1
Ethics set of standards that govern the conduct of person/persons of a profession
- Obligated to treat humans with respect
- Care for animals and their welfare
- Honest with data treatment
Questions in ethics
- Little Albert (1920) Experiment conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner
o baby was conditioned to have a fear of white rats, and eventually other white furry
objects
- Nuremburg Trials Nazi doctors conducting experiments on prisoners
o Considered crimes: human experimentation
o Prompted the APA Code of Ethics (1953)
Outlines the responsibilities of psychologist
Beneficence and non-malfeasance
Fidelity and responsibility
Integrity
Justice (reduce forms of bias)
Respect for people’s rights
- Tuskegee “Bad Blood” (1932-1972)
o US Public health service wanted to study untreated syphilis cases
o 400-600 poor black men from rural south
Told that they had “bad blood”, instead of being treated
- Ethical or not?
o Participants should be aware that they are in a study
o Debriefed at end of study
Understanding behavior CHAPTER 2
- Hindsight can rationalize and explanation after a conclusion has been drawn
- People are difficult to study b/c of complexity, variability, and reactivity
- Experience as a way of knowing
o Advantage observable and publicly verifiable
o Disadvantages Not all phenomenon directly observable
o Understanding observations requires interpretation, which can be biased
- Scientific method
o Observe behaviors form a theory
o form hypothesis derived from theory: testable, can be supported or not
o test through one research method (e.g., descriptive, correlation, experimental)
Descriptive
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Observing how humans and animals behave in natural settings
Or a case study common for studying rare cases. They cannot
determine a cause-effect relationship.
Survey research maximize probability that survey takers understand the
answers
Correlation the co-relationship between two variables, measured at different
times
Measure variable x and variable y, then determine relationship
Positive relationship two variables increase or decrease together (like
an elevator)
Negative relationship two variables tend to move in opposite
directions (like a see-saw)
Sign of the coefficient indicates directionality (above; pos or neg)
Correlation coefficient: magnitude
o Absolute value of coefficient
o Weak: .10-.29, Moderate: .30-.49, Strong: >.50
Third variable problem variables that are casually related are
correlated but not all variables that are correlated are casually related
o two variables may be correlated b/c they are caused by third
variables
o Therefore, do not assume causality
Strengths: based on real world data & allows for prediction
Weaknesses: cannot draw clear causal conclusions
Experimental research determines causation of how one variable affects
another (cause and effect)
Independent variable what the experimenter manipulates
Dependent variable measured to see whether manipulation had an
effect
Must randomize participants
o Different from random sampling
Example: teach two lectures at different temperatures and administer a
test after the lecture
Confounds any difference between the experimental and control
groups, other than independent variable, makes independent variable
effects uninterpretable
Pitfalls of experimental design
o Placebo effect improvement resulting from the mere
expectation of improvement; subjects need to be unaware of
whether they’re in control group
o Nocebo effect harm resulting from expectation of harm (e.g.,
voodoo doll phenomenon)
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