[CMN 112] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 19 pages long Study Guide!

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UC-Davis
CMN 112
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CMN 112
1/11/17
Lecture Notes
Persuasion & Propaganda
Persuasion
- Information in factual form is a boundary of persuasion
- All propaganda is persuasion, but not all persuasion is propaganda
- Elements of Persuasive Communication
o Is it free or coercive?
o Is it aiming to shape, change or enforce?
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- Definition: any message intended to shape, reinforce, or change responses of others
o Symbolic process where communicators aim to convince others to change attitudes or behaviors
(regarding an issue of some sort) through a message. Atmosphere of persuasion: free choice
o Alt def: successful intentional effort aimed at influencing another’s mental state. Persuadee (not
the persuader) has some measure of freedom. Has choice to comply or refuse the messages. (prof
disagrees with this because not all persuasion is successful.)
- Persuader: intentional & conscious
- Persuadees: sometimes, they may not realize they are being persuaded
o Ex. Subliminal messages
Rhetoric History
- Ancient Greeks, Plato (truth) vs. the Sophists (style)
o Aristotle Rhetoric: first persuasion theory
o Techniques on argumentation
o Employing analogy is a good technique for argumentation
- Involves Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
o Logos: logic, reason, proof
o Ethos: credibility/trust
o Pathos: emotions/ values
Empirical Research
- Carl Hovland (1940-1960)
- Performed experiments to evaluate the effects of doc film: “Why We Fight”
o Effects were limited
o Key variable: time
o Sleeper effect
Influence
- The Asch Line Study
- [influence] occurs when receivers act on cues/messages that were originally intended for “consumption”
Self-Persuasion
- Doesn’t form attitudes, isn’t raising awareness
- Only induces people to alter attitudes. Includes the “shaping, change, reinforce”
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Messages
- News & movies are persuasive messages BUT they are also not persuasive messages
- Uses factual info, not like propaganda
- Some docs and movies are not objective
Free choice
- Differentiates from coercion
- Perception is important in this!
Propaganda
- Deliberate, systematic attempt. Aiming to shape perceptions but more on manipulating. Often involves
misinformation and lies.
- Difference from persuasion: it’s a one-sided effort, doesn’t care about the persuadee’s wellbeing
- Near or total control of info transmission
- Relies typically on mass media
- Is all about promoting an agenda
- Can be deceptive
National Socialist Party (Nazi Party)- historical roots
- Strong nationalism but low esteem
- Economic chaos
- Hitler’s autobiography Mein Kampf (My Fight)
o 2 chapters entirely devoted to propaganda techniques
- Black propanganda
o Uses all misinformation, lies
- White
o Uses facts but used in manipulation
- Gray
o Uses half and half
**look at slides online
- Central themes should be exposed frequently
- Social influence: the idea that we can all help each other
- Normalizing change: “hey, this change, it’s great. Look at how great it is”
- Response efficacy: specific actions and behaviors
- Person efficacy: confidence
Propaganda principles
- Hard for gov to control info
- Make events that lead to moral outrage
Propaganda is deceptive, uses misinformation sometimes
Persuasion satisfies both persuader and persuadee
Look at blue chart
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