CMN 140 Study Guide - Final Guide: 2-Step Garage, Procter & Gamble, Digital Millennium Copyright Act

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11 Apr 2017
CMN 140 Exam 3 Final Study GUide
Chapter 13: Broadening Our Perspective on Media Effects
Key Idea: When we take a four-dimensional perspective—timing, type, valence, and
intentionality—of effects, we can better appreciate the broad range of effects the media
are constantly exerting on us.
1. Why do we need to broaden our perspective on media effects? Why the
narrow perspective is problematic?
1. Narrow perspective is problematic because can lead to:
1.1. Misbelief that media effects only other people (third
person effect)
1.2. Misbelief that tragic events occur frequently in reality
1.2.1. We look for high-profile tragedies (which are rare) &
isolate it as evidence & use it to conclude that they are
media effect (they have some indication of media effect)
1.3. Lack of awareness and control of media effects
1.3.1. We cannot perceive the many effects that are
constantly occurring all around us
1.3.2. Effects will influence you without your awareness
& occur outside of your control
2. Broader perspective allows for better media literacy to better
control/avoid effects and understand the type of media effects on us
2. Consider timing as a dimension of media effects. How can you categorize
effects in terms of timing? Define the categories, provide examples. How
do these categories compare to each other? Which ones are easier to
notice? Is there a difference between these effect categories in terms of
1. Categorize effects in terms of timing by focusing your attention on
when evidence of media effects start to show up more so than how
long it lasts
2. Media effects are either immediate or long-term
1.1. Immediate: one that occurs during or immediately after
exposure to a media msg; usually sudden changes
1.1.1. Easier to notice: evidence of that effect is
observable once it occurs & this makes it easy to link the
effect as a cause & conclude the effect as it was from the
1.1.2. Endurance: lasts only for a short period of time OR
might last forever (still categorized as immediate because
something changed inside of you during the exposure)
SUMMARY: Immediate effects are easier to notice, and
can last for a short period of time or forever
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1.2. Long-term: effect shows up only after many exposures; a
pattern of repeated exposures that sets up the conditions for a
long-term effect
1.2.1. Not as easy to notice: it is slow & gradual and no
single exposure/message is responsible for the effect; you
are exposed to many media exposures & other events in
your life, so it’s harder to link the effect to a media
1.2.2. Endurance: Slow & gradually constructed over
years of exposure
SUMMARY: Long-term effects are slow & gradually
construct over years of exposure; no one thing is
3. In addition to behavioral effects, what types of effects are out there? Define
and provide example for the following types: (SEVEN IN TOTAL)
1. Cognitive-type effect = most pervasive, overlooked effect in which
media can affect what we know by immediately planting ideas &
information in our minds
1.1. Gained from both factual or social information
1.1.1. Ex: Children learn about our world by observing
role models (parents, friends, siblings etc.)
1.1.2. Ex: When adults do not have social models in our
real lives, we find them in media and build a vicarious
relationship w/ that powerful, attractive, successful
individual (athlete, model, politician)
1.2. Ex: We are cultivated with social information. TV shows
make with characters we identify with can become our role
models; we define success as through their success.
SUMMARY: Cognitive-type effect is the most wide-spread &
overlooked effect b/c it occurs when media plants info/ideas
in our mind info gained from both factual & social info
2. Belief-type effect = media reinforces/erodes our beliefs as well as
show us values used by people in news & fictional characters that
we can either accept or reject
1.1. Belief = faith that something is true or real
1.1.1. Our belief evolves over time based on continuous
exposure of characters & situations
1.2. Ex: Through exposure to TV, we can believe that
attractiveness is truly defined physically as thinness, fitness/abs,
tall, etc.
SUMMARY: Belief-type effect can reinforce or erode our
already-existing beliefs and/or show us new values from ppl
in media that we can either accept or reject
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2. Attitudinal-Type = media can influence our evaluative judgments by
accepting attitudes displayed on media or making judgments based
on standards that’s already set by media
1.1. Attitude = evaluative judgment about things by comparing
them to our standard
1.1.1. If something meets our standard, we judge it as OK
1.1.2. If something exceeds our standard, we judge it to
be very good
1.1.3. If something fails to meet our standard, we judge it
as bad
1.2. **Attitudes rely on beliefs
1.2.1. Beliefs are standards we use to make our
evaluative judgment
1.2.2. Ex: Because we believe attractiveness is physical
features displayed from the media, we evaluate people in
our lives accordingly. If someone doesn’t have a six pack,
we think they are ugly.
1.3. Media influence on ppl’s attitude are stronger at general
level than a specific level
1.3.1. Ex: We have a stronger opinion on society than
about a single individual
SUMMARY: Attitudinal-Type Effect occurs when we
make evaluative judgments based on standards that
may have been already set by media or influencing our
previous judgments relies heavily on belief and
occurs stronger at general level than a specific level
2. Emotional-Type = media can trigger an emotional reaction from us
1.1. Immediate effects: triggers strong emotions (ex: rage,
fear, lust) and weak emotions (ex: sadness & boredom,
1.1.1. Ex: Watching a funny movie and LOLing, sad
movie and crying
1.2. Long-term effects: desensitization after years of exposure
and building tolerance to media violence
1.2.1. Ex: We come to lose the ability to feel sympathy
toward victims b/c media doesn’t focus on the victim's
suffering, but focus on the perpetrators of the violence &
how attractive they are
1.2.2. Ex: We watch many sad movies and after a time
we are no longer crying because we are used to the
formulas for invoking our emotional response
SUMMARY: Emotional-Type Effect is either an
immediate effect, where we immediately are triggered
with emotions during exposure, or long-term effect,
where we are desensitized to exposure over time of
periodic exposure
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