DES127 Midterm 1 Study Review

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DES 127A
Ann Savageau

Class #1: Introduction to the course ☐-Definition of paradigm ☑-climate change: its causes and consequences ☑-Janis Birkeland: the current patterns of design ☐-The current paradigm and the paradigm of the future ☐Dumb Designʼs characteristics ☐-Brundtland Commission definition of sustainability ☐-What does the HEP-NEP questionnaire measure ☑-What is the Sixth Extinction, and what 4 factors are causing it Brundtland Commission definition of sustainability To beable to meed the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations, to meet their own needs HEP - NEP questionnaire measure - the attitude toward the enviroment Global Warming (anthropogenic) - current increaing trends in emissions raise earth's temperature - rapidly melting polar ice caps and rising sea levels threaten heavily polulated coastal areas worldwide - more killer storms and droughts Current Patterns of Design (Janis Birkeland) - are wasteful of non-renewable resources - create toxic material and by-products - require excessive energy for production - harm biodiversity at the source of extraction - often involve energy intensive long distance transport Dumb Design: "one size fits all" - Design currently practiced by majority processes and systems are invisible to us: water, energy, waste - Standardized solutions that fail to consider the special nature practice, "one size fits all" - examples of dumb design: - Globalized fashion - grass monoculture lawns - grass vs. edible yards - agribusiness - designing for worse case scenarios - Crude products - polyester - replace natural processes and material with artificial ones - breast feeding The Sixth Extinction - Happening now - Anthropogenic - caused by humans - 4 factors causeing it: (michal Novacek - deforestation - destruction of habitats - overhunting (and fish) - invasive species The current paradigm and the paradigm of the future Class #2: Principles of ecology; history of sustainability Paradigm - world view Paradigm of hunters-gatherer cultures: - "gaia" - nature is sacred, female, nurturing, alive. Cultural Paradigm of modernism (and scientific revolution) - Modernism: began Late Renaissance Industrial paradigm - assumptions and beliefs: - humans are outside and not affected by nature - humans are dominant life form; other life forms are less valuable - Earth is not alive and is inert and mechanistic for the benefit of humans - earth is exploitable by humans with no conseqences - economic grown and waste are necessary for us to thrive - Can't learn from nature - technology can solve anything - economic exploitation of the poor is acceptable Cartesian Dualism: philosophers Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon 16th and 17th centuries: - mind and matter distinct - natural world is a machine, inert, exploitable by humans Industrial model of society development: - exploitation of huge base of resources - benefits of development are enjoyed by few (top 1 percent) - poor bear the social and environmental costs (bottom 80 percent) Design of an Industrial Revolution (according to Cradle to Cradle): 1. put toxic materials in air, water, and soil 2. produce material dangerous that will affect future generations 3. generate gigantic amounts of waste 4. put valuable materials in hole all over the planet, where they can never be retrieved 5. thousands of complex regulations - not to keep people safe but to keep them from being poisoned too quickly 6. measure productivity on how few people are working 7. create prosperity by digging up or cutting down natural resources and burying or burning them. 8. erode diversity of species and cultural practices Chemurgy - a branch of applied chemistry concerned with preparing industrial products form agricultural raw materials - Pre-World War II sustainability - Pioneer George Washington Carver - Henry Ford’s Soybean Car 1941 & soybean suit Why the Chemurgy movement died out: What natural materials were used in Chemurgy: - peanuts - soy bean Pre-war and post-war agriculture in US - largely organic: chemical pesticides weren't available - Small family farms predominated vs. Heavy use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers Owned by large corporations: "Agribusiness" Why “planned obsolescence” was promoted after and not during World War II - chemical companies that produced toxins for WWII found new market: toxins for their war on agricultural pests - Planned obsolescence - Deliberately planing or designing product with limited useful life, so it will become obsolete or nonfictional after short period of time. - Designer Brook Stevens 1954 - "Consumerism" way of life Visionaries and designers with conscience: - Buckminster Fuller - Ephemeralization - doing more with less - Geodesic Dome - Dymaxion house - Victor Papanek - ecological balance of planet is not longer sustainable. we must learn to preserve and conserve earth's resources, and change our basic patterns of consumption, manufacture and recycling, or we may have no future The importance of Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring: - beginning of a major paradigm shift - lead to the ban of DDT - pesticide that started to affect the biological food chain. -Definition of a “system” -Examples of systems perspective (overpopulation) Characteristics of sustainable systems - diversity and resiliency - decentralized - cooperation and collaboration - ecological vitality - social vitality - financial vitality ? - stakeholders: more than a client, consumer - can include virtually everything in the ecosystem Sustainabiity Triad (triple bottom line) Ecology, Economy, Equity (planet, Profit, people) - humans depend on health of planet to survive - enough for all, not just few - how healthy is the economy? It can's thrive a the expense of the environment and social equity Prevailing financial business paradigm today; - focuses on "economy" / ignores ecology, equity Externalaities - Social equity and ecological concerns - "outside our concerns" Genuine Progress Indicator - tries to compensate for uncalculated social and enviromental impacts - estimated value of ecosystems services: 16-54 trillion dollars New paradigm: Class #3: Measuring our impact on the planet What are greenhouse gases? Which are the major ones? 2 - Carbon Dioxide - Methane - Nitrous Oxide - Ozone Global impacts of rising CO2 levels: - oceans acidifying: lower PH, less Calcium carbonate - small marine creatures acid is eating their shells Why is methane a problem: - over 20 times more powerful at warming atmosphere than CO2 What is permafrost and how is it connected to global warming -semi ice thin layer that over certain landscapes -melting permafrost methane emissions why is melting sea ice and glacier ice a problem - Global warming can melt the permafrost - would affect and speed global warming What are 275 ppm, 350 ppm, 400 ppm? - 275 ppm (parts per million): Co2 in our atmosphere until 300 years ago - 350 ppm safe upper limit for carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - 400 ppm: 2013 level of CO2 Carbon sinks - a natural or artifical reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing compound: - soils - peat bogs - oceans - forests Carbon sequestration - process of removing carbon from atmosphere and depositing it in a "reservoir" or "carbon sink" Name a building product that sequesters carbon; how can plants be grown on buildings to trap carbon? - buildings as Carbon Sinks - Hempcrete : Cabon Negative - Co2 is locked up in the process of growing and harvesting the hemp than is released in the production of the lime binder - Living buildings: plant covered walls; attracts beneficial wildlife Carbon Footprint - measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, - Measured in units of carbon dioxide - global ecological footprint is 30% larger than nature can sustain Ecological Footprint composed of: (resourses) - fossil energy consumption - built environment - food - forest products - energy land - consumed land - farm land - forest land US average vs. world average vs. California average 27 tons vs. 5.5 tons vs. 11.5 tons Difference between Carbon Footprint and Ecol. Footprint -Ecological Footprint definition; how many earths do we need to support us; how much larger is our Ecol. Footprint than nature can sustain; comparison of Ecol. Footprints in US vs. world average -social equity and Ecol. Footprint Carbon offsets - the reduction of carbon emission through alternative projects such as solar or wind energy or reforestation - example: TerraPass Carbon - "Sin Tax" carbon credits A.B. 32: what is it? - California Assembly Bill 32 - Passed 2006 - CA's greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 be reduced to 1990 levels through caps on emissions Cap and Trade - legal limit on the amount of greenhouse gases our economy can emit each year - companies may swap among themselves the permission to emit greenhouse gases “boiled frog” syndrome - We are exceeding our ecological footprint without noticing - like slowly heating water we can't feel the affects. - how do we communicate the climate change and get people to notice? Class #4: Three Sustainability Frameworks: Know the major features and pros and cons of each sustainability framework: 1. Natural Capitalism: founders: Paul Hawkins - founder of Erewhon trading company Amory Lovins - Rocky mountain institute Hunter Lovins - ^ - Goals: "foster the efficient and restorative use of resources to make the world secure, just, prosperous and life-sustaining" by making businesses, individuals and governments far more efficient. - The problem is Waste 4 typ
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