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Midterm

DES 127A Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Amory Lovins, Ecological Footprint, Hunter Lovins

16 pages54 viewsFall 2013

Department
Design
Course Code
DES 127A
Professor
Ann Savageau
Study Guide
Midterm

Page:
of 16
Class #1: Introduction to the course
-Definition of paradigm
-climate change: its causes and consequences
-Janis Birkeland: the current patterns of design
-The current paradigm and the paradigm of the future
Dumb Designʼs characteristics
-Brundtland Commission definition of sustainability
-What does the HEP-NEP questionnaire measure
-What is the Sixth Extinction, and what 4 factors are causing it
Brundtland Commission definition of sustainability
To beable to meed the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations, to meet their own needs
HEP - NEP questionnaire measure - the attitude toward the enviroment
Global Warming (anthropogenic)
- current increaing trends in emissions raise earth's temperature
- rapidly melting polar ice caps and rising sea levels threaten heavily polulated coastal
areas worldwide
- more killer storms and droughts
Current Patterns of Design (Janis Birkeland)
- are wasteful of non-renewable resources
- create toxic material and by-products
- require excessive energy for production
- harm biodiversity at the source of extraction
- often involve energy intensive long distance transport
Dumb Design: "one size fits all"
- Design currently practiced by majority
processes and systems are invisible to us: water, energy, waste
- Standardized solutions that fail to consider the special nature practice, "one size fits all"
- examples of dumb design:
- Globalized fashion
- grass monoculture lawns - grass vs. edible yards
- agribusiness
- designing for worse case scenarios
- Crude products - polyester
- replace natural processes and material with artificial ones - breast feeding
The Sixth Extinction
- Happening now
- Anthropogenic - caused by humans
- 4 factors causeing it: (michal Novacek
- deforestation
- destruction of habitats
- overhunting (and fish)
- invasive species
The current paradigm and the paradigm of the future
Class #2: Principles of ecology; history of sustainability
Paradigm - world view
Paradigm of hunters-gatherer cultures:
- "gaia" - nature is sacred, female, nurturing, alive.
Cultural Paradigm of modernism (and scientific revolution)
- Modernism: began Late Renaissance
Industrial paradigm - assumptions and beliefs:
- humans are outside and not affected by nature
- humans are dominant life form; other life forms are less valuable
- Earth is not alive and is inert and mechanistic for the benefit of humans
- earth is exploitable by humans with no conseqences
- economic grown and waste are necessary for us to thrive
- Can't learn from nature
- technology can solve anything
- economic exploitation of the poor is acceptable
Cartesian Dualism: philosophers Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon 16th and 17th
centuries:
- mind and matter distinct
- natural world is a machine, inert, exploitable by humans
Industrial model of society development:
- exploitation of huge base of resources
- benefits of development are enjoyed by few (top 1 percent)
- poor bear the social and environmental costs (bottom 80 percent)
Design of an Industrial Revolution (according to Cradle to Cradle):
1. put toxic materials in air, water, and soil
2. produce material dangerous that will affect future generations
3. generate gigantic amounts of waste
4. put valuable materials in hole all over the planet, where they can never be retrieved
5. thousands of complex regulations - not to keep people safe but to keep them from being
poisoned too quickly
6. measure productivity on how few people are working
7. create prosperity by digging up or cutting down natural resources and burying or burning
them.
8. erode diversity of species and cultural practices
Chemurgy - a branch of applied chemistry concerned with preparing industrial products
form agricultural raw materials
- Pre-World War II sustainability
- Pioneer George Washington Carver
- Henry Ford’s Soybean Car 1941 & soybean suit

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