DES127 midterm 2 Study Review

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DES 127A
Ann Savageau

Des 127A Winter 2013 Midterm 2 Study Guide Cradle to Cradle: Chapters 3, 4, 5 will be part of the midterm: know the main concepts and terms in each chapter Class #8: Eco-design Strategies 3R's Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Con: - It only slows down the destruction - does not restore - "Being 'less bad' is no good" (C2C's critique of the 3Rs , Chapter 3) Natural Capitalism’s goal of "radical resource productivity": (5 strategies Reduce) - dematerialization, Reduce weight of Product, package - reduce emissions, water, energy - minimize number of production methods, operations. - minimize manufacturing waste - design for durability, not obsolescence Dematerialization reduction in the quantity of materials required to serve economic functions in society reduce in packaging Levi’s Jeans reduce and reuse strategy Levi's Wasteless jeans made form 8 recycled plastic bottles (20% recycled plastic) reduce and reuse strategy Cradle to Cradle’s critique of reuse - waste is being simply transfered to another place - reuse postpones disposal Examples of products deliberately designed for reuse - Park bench - Reusable shopping bags made from fabric swatches - maille mustard jars/ wine glass Aggie Reuse Store - creative reuse of campus post consumer waste - help students be able to buy items at low cost - promotion of 'waste=food' ethic - teach workshop on creative reuse At what stages does the lock-in of environmental impacts occur - "lock-in" of environmental impacts 'reduce' (dematerialization) 'reuse' possibilities for a product 'recycle (or upcycle) possibilities for a product occurs within the concept and detail design steps of the product development cycle. The Story of Stuff by Annie Leonard Class 9: Sustainability and the built environment; LEED certification Statistics on construction and housing in the U.S. - buildings consumes 60% of total material flow - buildings are responsible for 33% of the waste stream - building renovation and demolition: 91% of construction and demolition debris Animal antecedents to human architecture Termintes: Master architects - Adaptive or "smart structures" - structures respond and adapt to constantly changing internal conditions and external weather influences to maintain an equilibrium in which the colony can flourish" - local soil mixed with their saliva, chemicals makes soil rock hard. - passive, heating and cooling system - respiratory organ - ventilation WeaverBird: Woven structures - tension overlapping structures: much stronger than conventional architecture - Iraqi Marsh Arab meeting house constructed of woven reeds - stress and strain do not congregate. - bedouin tent: "notably efficient tensile structures" Bee-like structures: - Filippo Brunelleschi: scheme for the frame of Florence cathedral similar to the nest of a stingless bee - Rib vault and tension vault - african granaries similar to potter wasp - beehive houses - pillars similar to paper pillar in hornet nests. lightweight but strong. Indigenous architecture that is sustainable - wichita woven grass house - Apache thatched grass dwelling - cliff dwelling: sand sandstone blocks with adobe mortar - "dugout" a.k.a. sodhouse Passive Cooling Systems in Traditional Iranian Architecture - Wind towers - Water deliver systems using gravity: structure of a qanat Caves: Underground Village in China -Kang heating system -Troglodyte Dwellings in France Pisé, rammed earth - Rammed earth cities of China - compacted and durable (passive cooling systems, underground architecture, local materials); contemporary living walls and passive heating/cooling; Contemporary architecture: Back to it's roots - Buildings as living plant systems - sod Roof: insulating, long-lasting - Living wall ex north america: semiahmoo library, Vancouver, B.C. - Removes nitrous oxide from atmosphere and beautify the landscape Dr. Eugene Tsui: nature’s design principles in architecture; 1) Economize the use of materials 2) Maximize structural strength 3) Maximize the enclosed volume 4) Produce extremely high strength-to-weight ratios 5) Utilize stress and strain as a basis for structural efficiency 6) Create energy efficiency through form without external power 7) Create form that enhances air circulation 8) Use local materials for building 9) Use curvilinear forms that disperse and dissipate multi-directional forces 10) Integrate aerodynamic efficiency with structural form 11) Produce nothing that is toxic to the environment 12) Design structures that can be built by a single organism Herman Miller headquarters designed by McDonough Braungart Design "GreenHouse" Office and manufacturing facility 'Biophilia' What is LEED certification; why should architects be interested in becoming LEED certified? LEED, or Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design LEED is a green building tool that addresses the entire building lifecycle recognizing best- in-class building strategies. LEED is a program that provides third-party verification of green buildings. Why architects should be interested: - It saves money through tax rebates - lowers operating costs - increase asset value. Class 10: Design Tools for Sustainability Part 2: LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) Embodied Energy: all the energy needed to produce, sell, care for and dispose of a given product: it includes energy required to - extract - process - package - transport - sell - install/build - maintain - recycle or dispose of epptsimr/d embodied energy in a human being - creation - maintenance (requires most embodied energy) - disposal How it's measured: Joule: a unit of energy or work MJ: megajoule MJ/kg: energy by mass MJ/m2: energy by area MJ/m3: energy by volume examples: Cotton fabric 143.0 MJ/kg Paper (virgin white) 36.4 MJ/kg Recycled paper 23.4 MJ/kg Kraft paper 12.6 MJ/kg Brick 2.5 MJ/kg Hardwood 0.5 MJ/kg (air dried, rough sawn) Life Cycle: All stages of a products life from 'cradle to grave' - Raw material extraction - material processing - distribution - use - repair and maintenance - disposal or recycling Life cycle impact if we upcycle? Life Cycle Phases of Products: Upstream - raw material extraction - materials processing - manufacture Use - use - repair and maintenance Downstream - disposal or recycling Transportation/distribution can occur in all three phases. # Environmental impacts can occur at different stages of different products’ life cycle: know examples chair - upstream has most impact refrigerator - use is most impact laptops and computers - use is most impact. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Holistic and systematic method for analyzing the environment and human health impacts of a product or process across it's life cycle. 4 steps: - define the goal and scope - analyze the inventory (LCI) - assess the impacts (LCIA - interpret the results LCI life cycle inventory - accounting method to tract the imput and output material and energy flow assoxiated with each step in the process or in the production of a product. LCIA life cycle impact assessment - process of developing indicators of human potential human and ecological impacts from the LCI data. # Why do designers need to learn to use LCA? To know the stages to understand where the environmental impacts can occur in their product LCA is - holistic - most exacting, comprehensive - entirely quantitative - objective - difficult , time consuming, costly - takes training to master. Okala Module 6: Environmental Impacts Ecological damage: Global warming - additional gasses in atmosphere, rising temperatures Ozone depletion - upper atmosphere is destroyed leading to ozone holes Acid rain - release of acidic gasses, primarily from buring fossil fuels - dissolves metals from soils to the level at which they become toxic to plants and aquatic animals Water eutrophication - addition of access nutrients to water leading to reduction of available Oxygen Habitat alteration - physical modification or destruction of natural habitats - primary cause of the loss of biodiversity on the planet Ecotoxicity - effect of toxic substances on plants, animals and other biotas in natural environment Human health damage: Smog & air pollutants - photochemical smog caused by emissions of nitrogen oxides. - increase incidence of asthma in humans and reduce photosynthetic capacity of plants. Health damaging substances - include skin irritants, growth inhibitors and hormone disrupting chemicals. - potential toxic effects can include transient irritation, physical and mental development, temporary or permanent disability and/or death. Carcinogens - cancer causing substances that can cause permanent disability and/or death. - mutagens are substances that cause genetic mutation. - teratogens are substances that cause defects in developing babies in the womb. Resource depletion Fossil Fuel - current consumption rates for fossil fuels convert fuels into carbon dioxide at rates millions of times faster than nature can replenish the fuel reservoirs. Fresh water - consumption of fresh surface water or fresh groundwater converts them into forms that are typically not recoverable. -access to clean waster in growing international problem minerals - metal ores are converted into metal alloys that are eventually oxidized and dispersed as waste is often not recycled. topsoil - agriculture can erode topsoil at faster rate than natural processes replenish it. Okala Module 9: Product Lifecycle the comprehensive approach - designers need to understand the stages of the life of a product when environmental impact can occur. - how to ensure a comprehensive and accurate assessment of product's potential impacts Raw Material Extraction Material Processing component manufacturing Assembly & packaging Distribution & purchase Installation & use Maintenance & upgrading Transport Reuse, recycling or composting Incineration or landfilling every phase of the lifecycle can require energy and additional material inputs, as well as give emissions to air, water or soil. Okala Module 14: life cycle impact assessment assessing the environmental performance of a product throughout it's lifecycle is a complex process because there are many potential impacts to ecological and human health. Environmental assessment methods: Single-figure lifecycle assessment Multi-score lifecycle assessment Qualitative matrix LCA MBDC Ecological Footprint LiDS wheel Total Beauty LCA comprehensively quantifies and models the environment impacts of a product throughout its lifecycle.
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