Des 127A Winter 2013 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Cradle to Cradle:
Chapters 3, 4, 5 will be part of the midterm: know the main concepts and terms in each
Class #8: Eco-design Strategies
3R's Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
- It only slows down the destruction
- does not restore
- "Being 'less bad' is no good" (C2C's critique of the 3Rs , Chapter 3)
Natural Capitalism’s goal of "radical resource productivity":
(5 strategies Reduce)
- dematerialization, Reduce weight of Product, package
- reduce emissions, water, energy
- minimize number of production methods, operations.
- minimize manufacturing waste
- design for durability, not obsolescence
reduction in the quantity of materials required to serve economic functions in society
reduce in packaging
Levi’s Jeans reduce and reuse strategy
Levi's Wasteless jeans made form 8 recycled plastic bottles (20% recycled plastic)
reduce and reuse strategy
Cradle to Cradle’s critique of reuse
- waste is being simply transfered to another place
- reuse postpones disposal
Examples of products deliberately designed for reuse
- Park bench
- Reusable shopping bags made from fabric swatches
- maille mustard jars/ wine glass
Aggie Reuse Store
- creative reuse of campus post consumer waste
- help students be able to buy items at low cost
- promotion of 'waste=food' ethic
- teach workshop on creative reuse At what stages does the lock-in of environmental impacts occur
- "lock-in" of
'reuse' possibilities for a product
'recycle (or upcycle) possibilities for a product
occurs within the concept and detail design steps of the product development cycle.
The Story of Stuff by Annie Leonard
Class 9: Sustainability and the built environment; LEED certification
Statistics on construction and housing in the U.S.
- buildings consumes 60% of total material flow
- buildings are responsible for 33% of the waste stream
- building renovation and demolition: 91% of construction and demolition debris
Animal antecedents to human architecture
Termintes: Master architects
- Adaptive or "smart structures"
- structures respond and adapt to constantly changing internal conditions and external
weather influences to maintain an equilibrium in which the colony can flourish"
- local soil mixed with their saliva, chemicals makes soil rock hard.
- passive, heating and cooling system
- respiratory organ
WeaverBird: Woven structures
- tension overlapping structures: much stronger than conventional architecture
- Iraqi Marsh Arab meeting house constructed of woven reeds
- stress and strain do not congregate.
- bedouin tent: "notably efficient tensile structures"
- Filippo Brunelleschi: scheme for the frame of Florence cathedral similar to the nest of a
- Rib vault and tension vault
- african granaries similar to potter wasp
- beehive houses
- pillars similar to paper pillar in hornet nests. lightweight but strong. Indigenous architecture that is sustainable
- wichita woven grass house
- Apache thatched grass dwelling
- cliff dwelling: sand sandstone blocks with adobe mortar
- "dugout" a.k.a. sodhouse
Passive Cooling Systems in Traditional Iranian Architecture
- Wind towers
- Water deliver systems using gravity: structure of a qanat
Underground Village in China
-Kang heating system
-Troglodyte Dwellings in France
Pisé, rammed earth
- Rammed earth cities of China
- compacted and durable
(passive cooling systems,
underground architecture, local materials); contemporary living walls and passive
Contemporary architecture: Back to it's roots
- Buildings as living plant systems
- sod Roof: insulating, long-lasting
- Living wall ex north america: semiahmoo library, Vancouver, B.C.
- Removes nitrous oxide from atmosphere and beautify the landscape
Dr. Eugene Tsui: nature’s design principles in architecture;
1) Economize the use of materials
2) Maximize structural strength
3) Maximize the enclosed volume
4) Produce extremely high strength-to-weight ratios
5) Utilize stress and strain as a basis for structural efficiency
6) Create energy efficiency through form without external power
7) Create form that enhances air circulation
8) Use local materials for building
9) Use curvilinear forms that disperse and dissipate multi-directional
10) Integrate aerodynamic efficiency with structural form
11) Produce nothing that is toxic to the environment
12) Design structures that can be built by a single organism
Herman Miller headquarters designed by McDonough Braungart Design
"GreenHouse" Office and manufacturing facility 'Biophilia'
What is LEED certification; why should architects be interested in becoming LEED certified?
LEED, or Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
LEED is a green building tool that addresses the entire building lifecycle recognizing best-
in-class building strategies.
LEED is a program that provides third-party verification of green buildings.
Why architects should be interested:
- It saves money through tax rebates
- lowers operating costs
- increase asset value.
Class 10: Design Tools for Sustainability Part 2: LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)
all the energy needed to produce, sell, care for and dispose of a given product: it includes
energy required to
- recycle or dispose of
embodied energy in a human being
- maintenance (requires most embodied energy)
How it's measured:
Joule: a unit of energy or work
MJ/kg: energy by mass
MJ/m2: energy by area
MJ/m3: energy by volume
Cotton fabric 143.0 MJ/kg
Paper (virgin white) 36.4 MJ/kg
Recycled paper 23.4 MJ/kg
Kraft paper 12.6 MJ/kg Brick 2.5 MJ/kg
Hardwood 0.5 MJ/kg (air dried, rough sawn)
All stages of a products life from 'cradle to grave'
- Raw material extraction
- material processing
- repair and maintenance
- disposal or recycling
Life cycle impact if we upcycle?
Life Cycle Phases of Products:
- raw material extraction
- materials processing
- repair and maintenance
- disposal or recycling
Transportation/distribution can occur in all three phases.
# Environmental impacts can occur at different stages of different products’ life
chair - upstream has most impact
refrigerator - use is most impact
laptops and computers - use is most impact.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Holistic and systematic method for analyzing the environment and human health impacts of
a product or process across it's life cycle.
- define the goal and scope
- analyze the inventory (LCI)
- assess the impacts (LCIA
- interpret the results
LCI life cycle inventory - accounting method to tract the imput and output material and energy flow assoxiated with each step in the process or in the production of a product.
LCIA life cycle impact assessment - process of developing indicators of human potential
human and ecological impacts from the LCI data.
# Why do designers need to learn to use LCA?
To know the stages to understand where the environmental impacts can occur in their
- most exacting, comprehensive
- entirely quantitative
- difficult , time consuming, costly
- takes training to master.
Okala Module 6: Environmental Impacts
- additional gasses in atmosphere, rising temperatures
- upper atmosphere is destroyed leading to ozone holes
- release of acidic gasses, primarily from buring fossil fuels
- dissolves metals from soils to the level at which they become toxic to plants and
- addition of access nutrients to water leading to reduction of available Oxygen
- physical modification or destruction of natural habitats
- primary cause of the loss of biodiversity on the planet
- effect of toxic substances on plants, animals and other biotas in natural environment
Human health damage:
Smog & air pollutants
- photochemical smog caused by emissions of nitrogen oxides.
- increase incidence of asthma in humans and reduce photosynthetic capacity of plants.
Health damaging substances
- include skin irritants, growth inhibitors and hormone disrupting chemicals.
- potential toxic effects can include transient irritation, physical and mental development,
temporary or permanent disability and/or death.
- cancer causing substances that can cause permanent disability and/or death. - mutagens are substances that cause genetic mutation.
- teratogens are substances that cause defects in developing babies in the womb.
- current consumption rates for fossil fuels convert fuels into carbon dioxide at rates
millions of times faster than nature can replenish the fuel reservoirs.
- consumption of fresh surface water or fresh groundwater converts them into forms that
are typically not recoverable.
-access to clean waster in growing international problem
- metal ores are converted into metal alloys that are eventually oxidized and dispersed
as waste is often not recycled.
- agriculture can erode topsoil at faster rate than natural processes replenish it.
Okala Module 9: Product Lifecycle
the comprehensive approach
- designers need to understand the stages of the life of a product when environmental
impact can occur.
- how to ensure a comprehensive and accurate assessment of product's potential impacts
Raw Material Extraction
Assembly & packaging
Distribution & purchase
Installation & use
Maintenance & upgrading
Reuse, recycling or composting
Incineration or landfilling
every phase of the lifecycle can require energy and additional material inputs, as well as
give emissions to air, water or soil.
Okala Module 14: life cycle impact assessment
assessing the environmental performance of a product throughout it's lifecycle is a complex
process because there are many potential impacts to ecological and human health.
Environmental assessment methods:
Single-figure lifecycle assessment
Multi-score lifecycle assessment
Qualitative matrix LCA MBDC
LCA comprehensively quantifies and models the environment impacts of a product
throughout its lifecycle.