DES127 Final Study Guide part 2: Classes #1-#13

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DES 127A
Ann Savageau

Okala Module 4: Characteristics of immature ecosystems - small number of competitive, quickly growing species - use most of their available energy for growth Characteristics of mature ecosystems - Larger number of species with stable populations - ex. Forest or coral reef - many kinds of plants and organisms - use most energy to cycle materials - goal of sustainable design is for human economy to evetually stablize and live of earth's net solar income like a mature ecosystem. Characteristics of a sustainable economy - would only use the net available solar energy - social equity - economic viability - ecological kindness "sustainable economic growth" is a contradiction Class #1: What does the HEP-NEP (Human Exceptionist Paradigm-New Environmental Paradigm) questionnaire measure? - measures the attitude towards the environment Class #2: Know what the Chemurgy Movement was and why it died out. Chemurgy - a branch of applied chemistry concerned with preparing industrial products form agricultural raw materials - Pre-World War II sustainability - Pioneer George Washington Carver - Henry Ford’s Soybean Car 1941 & soybean suit What natural materials were used in Chemurgy - peanuts - soy bean Why the Chemurgy movement died out: - it was not taken seriously - they also did not believe in global warming or environmental issues Class #3: Know the definitions of Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint Carbon Footprint - measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, - Measured in units of carbon dioxide - global ecological footprint is 30% larger than nature can sustain Ecological Footprint composed of: (resourses) - fossil energy consumption - built environment - food - forest products - energy land - consumed land - farm land - forest land US average vs. World average vs. California average 27 tons vs. 5.5 tons vs. 11.5 tons Difference between Carbon Footprint and Ecol. Footprint -Ecological Footprint definition; how many earths do we need to support us; how much larger is our Ecol. Footprint than nature can sustain; comparison of Ecol. Footprints in US vs. world average -social equity and Ecol. Footprintf Class #4: Four principles that form the basis of C to C (very important) Cradle to Cradle: eco-effectiveness William McDonough and Michael Braungat Four principles: (form the basis of C to C) a. Elimination of Toxic materials - there are no need for many toxins that are assumed necessary ex. Interface Carpet - CEO Ray Anderson changed company from major polluter to a truly green industry b. Waste = Food - 90% of materials become waste - C to C's new Paradigm: manufactuing = natural metabolic processes of nature, in which there is no waste biological nutrients vs. technical nutrients - those found in nature (biosphere) vs. - materials not found in nature and can not be put back in nature; should be recycled with other technical nutrients (technosphere) Monstrous hybrids - when you mix materials together; can not be recycled - ex. Milk Carton - paper, wax, dyes Metabolism - the chemical conversion that produce material and energy needed to maintain and reproduce an organism Biological metabolism vs. Technological (technical metabolism) - returns all ingredients to the soil safely like in nature; waste = food vs. - uses materials that can be disassembles and reused indefinitely; never head for the landfill Closed-loop system c. Use the current Solar income of energy - live on borrowed energy of the sun - cannot ex
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