GEL 17 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Seismometer

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Published on 10 Sep 2016
School
UC-Davis
Department
Geology
Course
GEL 17
KeyTermsandConceptstoUnderstandforGEL17Midterm2
GlobalEarthquakeHazards:
● Thedistributionofearthquakesgloballyandinthecrust(e.g.mainlyaroundtheRingof
Fireandshallowfocus)
○ 80%alongRingofFire
○ AlsoTurkey,Iran,Himalayas
○ 85%inupper20kmofEarth’scrust(shallowfocus)
○ 12%in20300km(intermediatefocus)
○ 3%in300700km(deepfocus)
● Whydoshallowfocusearthquakescausesomuchdamage?
○ Proximitytothesurface&manmadestructures
● Whattectonicsetting(e.g.convergent,divergent)hasthelargestearthquakes?
○ convergentboundariesshearbetweendowngoingplateandoverridingplate,
usuallyshallowfocus
● Whatwasthelargestearthquakeeverrecorded?
○ 9.5inChilein1960
● InwhatkindoftectonicsettingisJapanlocated?
○ subductionzonePhilippineplatebeneathsouthernJapan
● Whatearthquakehazardscausedmostofthedeathsanddamageinthe1995Kobe
earthquake?
○ Extensivedamagetoinfrastructure,softstorydamage,liquefaction
● Whatearthquakehazardcausedmostdeathanddamageduringthe2011Japan
earthquake?
○ Tsunami
● InwhatkindoftectonicsettingisChilelocated?
○ SubductionzoneNazcaoceanicplatebeneathSouthAmericancontinental
plate
● Whywasthe1985MexicoCityearthquakesodevastatingeventhoughtheepicenter
wasover300milesaway?
○ MegathrustalongsubductionzoneofCocosplatebeneathNorthAmericanplate
○ Muchofthecityisbuiltonoldlakebedsliquefaction,amplification
● WhattypeoftectonicsettingistheCascaderegion?Couldwegetlargeearthquakes
there?
○ Activevolcanoes
○ Subductionofsmalloceanicplates(JuandeFuca&Gorda)beneathNorth
Americanplate
○ Cangetlarge,megathrustearthquakes
● Whatcausedthemostdeathsduringthe2010Haitiearthquake?
○ Concreteorcinderblockbuildingsthatcollapsed
○ Fallingmasonry
● WhatkindoftectonicsettingislocatedinCentralAsia/Himalayas?
○ continentcontinentconvergentmargins(collisionzone)
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○ progressivecompressionalstress
● WhatkindoffaultistheNorthAnatolianfaultinTurkey?Whatisthefaultbestknown
for?
○ strikeslip,transformfault
○ 7.4earthquakein1999
○ Collapseofpoorlyconstructedbuildings,liquefaction,flexureofgroundsurface
● What’sanintraplateearthquake?Whydotheyoccur?(hint:reactivatedfaults)
○ earthquakesthatoccurawayfromplateboundarieswithintheinteriorsofplates
○ ancientfaultsthatwereactiveinthepastremainweak,anynewstresscauses
themtoreactivate
● Whatisanexampleofanintraplateearthquake?(e.g.NewMadrid)
○ 18111812inNewMadrid,Missouri
○ MississippiRivertemporarilyreversedcourse
● WhyareearthquakesfeltoveralargerdistanceontheEastCoastthanontheWest
Coast?
○ Colder/oldercrustintheeasternUStransmitsseismicenergyveryefficiently
EarthquakeRisk,Prediction,andPreparedness:
● What2faultzonescanaffectDavis?
○ Foothillfaultzone&GreatValleyblindthrustsystem
● WhataresomepossibleeffectsofaBayAreaearthquakeinDavis?
○ localwatersupplies,pumpsshutdownduetopoweroutage,cracksincitywater
mains
○ waveamplification,damagetounretrofittedstructures
○ transportationlinksonI80
● Howdoweforecastearthquakes?Whycan’twepredictthem?
○ canmakeforecastsbysayingaquakewillstrikeacertainareawithsome
probabilityoversomeintervaloftime
○ behaviorofanimals,foreshocks(smallmagnitudequakes)
○ can’tpredictthembecausetheydonotrecuratregularandpredictableintervals
● Whatispaleoseismologyandhowcanithelpusforecastearthquakes?
○ subdisciplineofseismologythatinvolvesdiggingtrenchesperpendiculartofaults
toidentifyanddateancientearthquakestodefinearecurrenceinterval
● Whatisarecurrenceinterval?
○ averagetimebetweenlargeearthquakes
● Whatissliprate?(youwillnotneedtocalculateeitherrecurrenceintervalorsliprate,
justknowwhytheyareuseful)
○ sliprate=amountofrelativemotionacrossafaultpertimeperiod
○ averagedoverlongperiodsoftime,typicallyfairlyslow
○ duringanearthquakethesliprateisveryrapid
● What’sthedifferencebetweenlongtermandshorttermsliprate?
○ longterm=slow
○ shortterm=fast
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