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Study Guide

HDE 100B- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 38 pages long!)

38 Pages

Human Development
Course Code
HDE 100B
Nicole Hollis

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[HDE 100B] Comprehensive summer guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at HDE 100B – Midterm 2 Cognitive Transitions (cont.) Experience-expectant and Experience-dependent development • Expectant: o related to critical periods (*primed for certain experiences to happen) o limited to developing skills and neural systems that are characteristic of a species o involves losing preexisting synapses o overproduction: developmental synaptogenesis or exuberant synaptogenesis ▪ *programmed by our genes to happen (maturation)  make a bunch of new synapses  ready to account for certain experiences  p▯u▯e s▯▯apses that a▯e▯’t used f▯e▯ue▯tl▯ • Dependent: o Driven by experiences ▪ form synapses to account for that experience ▪ EX: learn new instruments --> form new synapses to account for new skills ▪ NOT related to critical periods ▪ can happen at any point in life ▪ plasticity of brain determined by these types of development Brain imaging technology Correlational research --> doesn't imply causation  EX: show participant scary pictures  more oxygen in amygdala  show them neutral pictures  no increase Increase in oxygen in amygdala is correlated with seeing scary picture BUT no causation *we believe that more oxygen in brain --> more area in that area • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) – a technique used to produce images of the brain that shows connections among different regions (LOCATION, orientation of white matter tracts) • Electroencephalography (EEG) – a technique for measuring electrical activity in areas of the brain in response to specific stimuli/events ▯put ▯ap ▯ith ele▯t▯odes o▯ pe▯so▯’s head  detect event-related potentials or ERPs in pe▯so▯’s ▯▯ai▯  useful for when you want to know the TIMING of the brain) • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) – a technique used to produce images of the brain that shows connections among different regions (measures brain blood flow patterns and changes in metabolism, allows us to identify different BRAIN REGIONS when participants carry out a task) Synaptic Pruning • Process through which unnecessary connections between neurons are eliminated • Increased efficiency o path that is more used --> more canalized o less used path --> pruned away o cortical thinning ▪ decrease in amount of gray matter in the brain (thinning of areas in the brain that have been pruned) o increase in white matter ▪ a maturational process ▪ axons that are being used a lot are myelinated • *over the course of adolescence to adulthood (10 – 30), decrease in cortical thickness and increase in myelination (adaptive  tune brain to environment) find more resources at
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