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Final

HIS 15 Study Guide - Final Guide: Psychopathy, Neocolonialism, Mobutism


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 15
Professor
Jean- Baptiste
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 10
FinalStudyGuide
TERMS
Khoi/KhoikhoiandEuropeanExpansioninSouthAfrica
“SouthernAfricanExceptionalism”
isthehistoryofSouthAfricasimilarordifferentfromthewhole
continent?
Before1652
Khoikhoi/Khoi(Hottentots)livedinSouthAfrica
Pastoralists(Transhumant)
Foragers
Mobile,decentralized
ResistanttoDutchexpansion
16001700
CapeofGoodHopewasestablishedin1652asaDutchTradingoutpost
→cattleraidsofKhoi→tensions
Dutchcontinuetoexpandandsettlefrom1659onward→devastatethe
Khoipopulationandtakethemasindenturedservants
Anewpopulationisformedofmixedracepeople(Gricqua)→ethnicity
andracearenegotiable→moneycanbuy“whiteness”
1700s
HybridEuropeanidentities:Trekboers
similartoKhoi
Dutch&Gricqua
DefeatedKhoiwithweapons&horses
“Commando”campaigns:gainslaveswithcattleraids
Graduallylostmoreandmoreeconandpolindependenceand
startedworkingforBoersashuntersorherdsmen
1800s1960s
KhoesanabsorbedintoBoersocietyandremainpartofservileclassand
notallowedfullrightsofcitizensofcolony
Apartheidrulegraduallybeginsaswhitesupremacyreigns
Swahili/Kiswahili
“Swahili”comesfromanArabicwordmeaningcoast=>Sahil
Swahilicoast=Kenya,Tanzania/Zanzibar,andSomalia
1014thcenturiesindicatedacoastalsocietyIslamicinreligionandculture,but
Africaninlanguageandpersonnel
Swahililanguage=BantulanguagewithArabicwords
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Wealthy,successfultradingtownofKilwaestablishedin1200
OverthrewMogadishuastheleadingEastcoastaltradingpost
overseastrade(import&exporttaxes)
Bantumigrations→unifyinglanguage→PanAfricanism
Dahomey
DahomeyKingdomwasabanditstatefoundedin1600
WantedtheBritishtocreateplantationsinDahomeysotheexportofslavesoutof
Africawouldstop→unsuccessfulbutneededgunssocontinuedtosellslavesto
Europeans
Hugetaxes
DahomeywasconqueredbyFrenchSenegalesearmyin18924
MovewasinitiallywelcomedbyYorubaasliberationfromDahomeyan
tyranny
Côted’IvoirewasproclaimedFrenchcolonyin1893butmilitary
subjugationwasnoteasilyachieved
NocentralizedauthorityforFrenchtooverthrow,20yrsormoreto
overthrowthenumerouschiefdoms

Shaka
Zululeader18161840oftheZulustateoriginallyfoundedbyDingiswayo
Wascalledamilitarygenius,psychopath,statebuilder,andaccusedofgenocide
differentrepresentationscanbeusedtojustifydifferentviewpoints
Beganasasoldierandeventuallyexpandedhiscontroltobecomeaferocious
leader
Shakausedmarriageasawaytocontrolandmanipulatesociety
Socialadulthoodw/marriage
Manipulationofsocialandculturalnormsforpoliticalgains
BecomesexampleofStateBuildingTechnique:ResistEuroInfluence
BecomesexampleofAfricanresistancetocolonialrule
Changesinweapons
Changesinnatureofbattles
Agegradesystem
SamoriTouré(18301900)
TheMandinkafounderoftheTukolorEmpire,anIslamicstateinpresentday
Guinea
HecamefromanonMuslimDyulatradingfamilywholivedintheregionofthe
upperNigerbasin.
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1860s:hebuiltupandtrainedaforceofwellarmedsoldiertoprotectthetrading
interestofhisfamily.
18651875:HeconqueredsurroundingDyulastatesandbuiltupapowerful
Mandinkakingdom.(pg.236)
Militarystrategies:
incorporatedmalecaptivesintothearmyratherthansellingthemasslaves
importedthelatestquickloadingriflesfromtheSierraLeoneportof
Freetown
usedlocalironsmithstorepairandmanufacturemuzzleloadingguns
Facedinternalrevoltin1888duetoattempttoconvertMandinkatoIslam
Used“scorchedearthpolicy”whenFrenchinvadedin1891
devastatedheartland
shiftedentireempiretotheeastnearGhana
FinallydefeatedbyFrenchin1898inLiberia
Mfecane/difaqane
Meaning
Mfecane=“thecrushing”bytheNguniofsoutheast18161821
Shakawentafterhispoliticalenemies/otherleaders
Difaqane/Lifaqane=“thescattering”bytheSothoTswanaethno/language
groupsofthehighveld(shillingtonpg.263)18211823
Muchdislocationandmanydisappearances
Emptyingoutofpopulations
“TransformedthepoliticalmapofthesouthernAfricaninterior”(Shillingtonpg.
263)
“Stemmedfromincreasedcompetitionfortheregion’slimitednaturalresources.”
(Ibid)
Therearetheoriesthata)itneverhappenedb)itwasactuallytheresultofdrought
&environmentalfactorsandc)tojustifyexpansion,theBoers/Britishclaimed
thatsince1millionpeopledied,thelandwassimplyemptyforthetaking(Terra
Nulius:“emptyingout”)
EstablishedNdebelekingdom/modernZimbabwewhentheNdebelemoved
Neocolonialism
CasestudyoftheCongointhe1960s
BelgiankingBaudouinmadeaspeechonJune30,1960thatstatedthatthe
colonialsystemofeconomicexploitationwouldremain,butasmallelite
groupofAfricanpoliticiansbecamefigureheadsatthetop
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