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PHI 117
David Copp

Asmahan Maayeh121213FIN1PHI 117Fall 2013David CoppFinal ExaminationAnswer fifteen 15 of the following questions1 What is the divine command theory and what is the Euthyphro objectionIs it a good objectionThe Divine Command Theory is a theory about moral facts which claims to reduce the moral facts to nonmoral terms more specifically to theological facts about gods nature It is therefore a form of moral supernaturalism and moral realism This theory claims that doing or not doing a particular action is right because god has commanded that we do or not do this particular action The Euthyphro objection objects is theory on the grounds that if the Divine Command Theory is true then it would be claiming that one that an action is wrong because god condemns that action and two god condemns and action because it is wrong However the Euthyphro objections highlights the lack of logical reasoning in the Divine Command Theory because only the second point is logical since the first would mean that the action is wrong only because god says so and disregards other factors The Euthyphro objection is indeed a good objection because by highlighting the lack of logicality it proves the Divine Command Theory to be false 2 What is the difference between normative or situational relativism and absolutismExplain why absolutism is compatible with metaethical relativismIllustrate the idea using the two kinds of metaethical relativism we discussed in the course Normative or situational relativism is a view that considers that conditions matter in making moral decisions and take on a prima facie that a certain action may be wrong in this situation but it is not wrong in general On the other hand absolutism is a view that considers that a certain action such as lying is wrong no matter what situation an individual is in the main difference is that the normative view does not say anything about metaethical issues or it does not claim an action to be right or wrong while an absolutist does Absolutism is compatible with one type of metaethical relativism psychological relativism or subjectivism because whether something is wrong or not depends on individual beliefs or wrongness To a certain individual a certain action may be wrong or right no matter what Absolutism is compatible with another type of metaethical relativism cultural relativism or subjectivism because a certain culture may determine that a certain action is right or wrong no matter what and everyone in that culture would have that same view as well3 What is the difference between the direction of fit of belief and the direction of fit of desireWhat is the relevance of this distinction to the Humean theory of motivationThe direction of fit of belief claims that beliefs represent the world as being one way or another and are either true or false The direction of fit of desire claims that desires inclines us to alter the world to bring about their satisfaction The distinction between beliefs and desires is
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