[PSC 1] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (41 pages long!)

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6 Feb 2017
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UC-Davis
PSC 1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Research Designs
Descriptive observe and classify
o EX: Are there more dirty cars in the sorority parking lots or the fraternity parking
lots?
Correlational two things are related to each other
o EX: Violent video games make people violent, or violent people like violent video
games
o No causation
o Used because sometimes impossible to design experiment
EX: Correlation between foot size and test score
o Sometimes unethical to conduct
EX: Make children play violent video games
o Strong correlation magnitude closer to +1 or -1
o Weak correlation magnitude closer to 0
Experimental one thing causes another
o Independent and dependent variable
Independent variable that causes the outcome
Dependent variable influenced by the independent variable
o At least two groups to compare need comparison
Experimental group group that receives treatment
Control group receives placebo
o Random assignment each person has an equal chance of being assigned to
either group
Statistics
o Descriptive describe data
o Frequencies
Important to help determine how generalizable your data are
Ages
Ethnicities
Gender
General Scores
Are there any outliers?
o Central tendency average
Mean
Median
Mode most frequent value
Median and mode more useful than mean when there are wild outliers
o Variability - how spread out data are
Range highest number minus lowest number
Standard deviation
o Distribution curves distribution of data
Normal Distribution
o Inferential statistics used to make an inference about
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whether a difference is real or simply due to chance
o Real difference is statistically significant
o P value small value is more real/less likely findings due to chance
o Correlation
o Regression
o Analysis of Variance
o T-tests
o Structural equation modeling
o Failure of Ethics
Tuskegee observation of natural progression of syphilis in African American men who
thought they were receiving free health care
o Penicillin found to be good cure, but not given to men because researchers
wanted to finish study
Now there is Institutional Review Board (IRB) that ensures research is ethical
Experimenter expectancy the researcher watches participants and evaluates who is
hyper and who is not
o Biased
o Can even affect behavior of nonhuman animals (amazing Mark horse example)
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