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Alexandra Roach

Psych Study Guide 1Chapter 111 What are the two debates at the core of psychological history What is the primary question each of these debates addressesNatureNurture Debatenature biologically innate genetic you are born with themnurture acquired through experience culture education external environmental influencesare characteristics of an individual innate or acquiredPlato argued for nativism certain abilities and characteristics are born or innate natureAristotle argued for empiricism all knowledge and abilities are acquired through experience nurturetoday most psychologists would agree that both nativism and empiricism are correctMindBody Debateare mind and body separate and distinct entities or is the mind the physical brains subjective experience until the 1500s mind and body were considered separate entitiesthe body is material the mind is immaterial or spiritual the mind controls the bodythththis view was challenged in the 16 and 17 centuriesLeonardo Da Vinci began dissecting cadavers brains he concluded that all sensory information was received by a specific location in the brain nucleus of judgment and thought common senseRene Descartes came up with the Theory of Dualism mindbody interaction the mind influences the body and the body influences the mind reflex action theory12 What are the three philosophical influences on the field of psychology discussed in class What is the primary view of each of these influencesthMechanism the Zeitgeist of the 17 century all processes are determined and capable of being explained by the laws of chemistry and physics Galileo NewtonthEmpiricism the Zeitgeist of the 18 century all knowledge comes from sensory experience John Locke tabula rasa George Berkeley depth perception David Hume John Stuart MillthPositivism dominated the philosophical Zeitgeist by the 19 century a system based exclusively on facts that are objectively observable and not debatable13 What are the main differences between primary and secondary qualities of sensationPrimary qualities properties that exist whether or not we perceive them eg massSecondary qualities properties that exist in perception eg color odor sound taste14 What contributions did Franz Gall Pierre Flourens and Paul Broca make in studying the physiological aspects of behaviorFranz Gall phrenology mapping the outside of the brainPierre Flourens used extripation removing and destroying parts of the brain in order to understand brain localization and function in pigeonsFlourens extripation studies did not support phrenologyPaul Broca clinical method posthumous examination of brain structures to understand function15What are the basic views of Structuralism FunctionalismStructuralismpurpose analyze sensations images and feelings into basic elements using introspection understanding the basic elements of conscious experience would provide an underlying understanding of the mindFunctionalismthe study of mental life both of its phenomena and conditions consciousness cannot be broken down into separate elements psychology should focus on the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behaviorthe structuralist asked what happens when an organism does something the functionalist asked how and why16 What were the goals of introspection The disadvantagesIntrospection was used to measure conscious experience it was the examination of ones own mental state the goal was to break down consciousness to its most basic elements The disadvantages of using introspection is that experience is subjective therefore each person brings to introspection a unique perceptual system it is difficult to know if people employ introspection in the same way17 What are some of the principles behind the Gestalt laws of organizationGestalt psychology is a psychological approach that emphasizes that we perceive the whole rather than the individual components perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context Some if the principles includeclosure when an object is incomplete people perceive the whole by filling in the missing informationproximity when objects are placed together people perceive them as a group or patternsimilarity when objects look similar people perceive them as a group or patterncontinuity when the eye moves through one object to continue to another object 18 What was one of the primary influences for the development of social psychologySocial psychology was needed to understand individual and group behavior 19 How does ones culture influence their thought and behaviorNurture is acquired through experience culture and education external environmental influences which shape and influence thoughts and behavior 110 Explain the difference between psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysispsychodynamic theory the importance of the unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors psychoanalysis a therapeutic process aimed at bringing unconscious material to conscious awareness111 What are some of the factors that influence the cognitive revolutioncomputers had an enormous practical and conceptual impact on psychologyGeorge Miller launched the cognitive revolution with his classic paper on shortterm memory capacity in 1956cognitive psychology the scientific study of mental processes including perception thought memory and reasoninghow computers process information was used to understand how people process informationChapter 221 What are 4 cannons that guide scientific researchdeterminism the world is orderly and all events have meaningful systematic causesempiricism knowledge is based on observationparsimony simpler explanations are preferable to more complex onestestability theories should be testable22 What is deductive reasoning Inductive reasoningdeductive reasoning reasoning from general principles to specific instancesinductive reasoning reasoning from specific instances to general principles
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