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Alexandra Roach

Psych Study Guide 2Chapter 661 In a model of Classicalconditioning what is the unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned responseClassical Conditioning occurs when you learn two types of events go togetherunconditioned stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learningunconditioned response a response that does not have to be learned such as a reflexconditioned stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken placeconditioned response a response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned62 What are the goals of positive and negative reinforcement Positive and negative punishmentReinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior whereas punishment decreases the likelihood of a behaviorPositive reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated reward eg working harder to receive praise or increased payNegative reinforcement increases behavior through the removal of an unpleasant stimulus eg pressing a lever to turn off electric shockPositive punishment decreases the behaviors probability through the administration of a stimulus usually the stimulus is unpleasant eg speeding ticketNegative punishment decreases the behaviors probability through the removal of a usually pleasant stimulus eg loosing driving privileges for speeding63 When is punishment most effectiveResearchers have discovered that in order for punishment to be effective it must be reasonable unpleasant and applied immediately so that the relationship between the unwanted behavior and the punishment is clear64 How does the timing of reinforcement influence its effectivenessFor fast learning behavior must be reinforced each time it occurs continuous reinforcement The schedule of reinforcement also affects the persistence of behavior ratio schedule interval schedule fixed schedule variable schedule If the reinforcement is stopped the behavior extinguishes quickly 65 What are the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioningClassical conditioning a type of learned response a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response relatively passive process in which predictive connections are made between stimuliOperant conditioning a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future we learn that behaving in certain ways leads to rewards and not behaving in other ways keeps us from punishment 66 The Example of Little Albert given in lecture demonstrates what type of conditioningFear Conditioning classical conditioning to invoke fear for neutral objects67 What does the RescorlaWagner Model suggest about conditioningThe RescorlaWagner model states that the strength of the CSUS association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected or surprising an animal learns an expectation that some predictors potential conditioned stimulus are better than others emphasizes substitution of one stimulus for another68 Albert Banduras Bobo Doll study demonstrated what type of learning How did witnessing aggressive displays influence the behavior of the childs subjectBanduras Bobo Doll study demonstrated observational learning the acquisition or modification of a
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