Study Guide 4.doc

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Alexandra Roach

Psych Study Guide 4Chapter 111 What are the fundamental differences between the original schools of thought How did the second wave of schools of thought that came after the founding schools change the gamethree primary philosophical schools of thoughtmechanism all processes are determined and capable of being explained by the laws of chemistry and physicsempiricismall knowledge comes from sensory experiencepositivisma system based exclusively on facts that are objectively observable and not debatableEarly schools of thoughtpsychodynamic theorybehaviorismcognitive psychologysocial psychologyeach of these schools addressed previous gaps in the understanding of human behavior the influence of these schools is still widely felt in modern psychology12 What were the empirical methods favored by each schoolempiricist philosophers emphasizedsensory processesthe elements of conscious experience combining simple elements to form more complex ideas 13 What were some key factors that led to the cognitive revolutionGeorge Miller launched the cognitive revolution which his classic paper on shortterm memory capacity in 1956cognitive psychology the scientific study of mental processes including perception thought memory and reasoningcomputers had an enormous practical and conceptual impact on psychology how computers process information was used to understand how people process informationChapter 221 What are the different ways in which you can describe your data How do they compareLongitudinal design collect data from the same individuals at multiple time pointsCross sectional design collect data from multiple individuals at different developmental states at one time pointData can be collected in a variety of ways for each research designObservation involves the systematic assessment and recording or observable behaviorsCase studies very thorough and detailed investigation of a single or small number of unusual casesSurvey methods participants selfreport data based on questions asked by the researcherResponse performance used to quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to specific stimuli involve measurements of response time response accuracy stimulus judgmentsPhysiological measurements used to measure underlying physiological responses to a stimulus22 What are some of the key differences between descriptive experimental and correlational designsDescriptiveto get a snapshot of a phenomenon or the current thoughts feelings or behaviors of a group of peopleCorrelational to examine and understand the strength and direction of a relation between two variablesExperimental to examine how an independent variable IV causes a change in the dependent variable DV23 What different factors must you include when describing a study that uses the scientific methodthe scientific method is used todescribe what is happeningpredict when it happenscontrol what causes itexplain why it occursChapter 331 What are the different ways in which genes affect behavior What evidence have twin studies provided with respect to naturenurture debatemonozygotic twins identical one zygote splits into two same genetic composition same prenatal environment dizygotic twin fraternal two zygotes develop simultaneously different genetic composition same prenatal environment32 On a gross level how is the cerebral cortex organizedThe cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain it is responsible for sensory integration thought production and complex behavior 4 lobesfrontal lobe higher order processing and planning movementprefrontal cortex working memory attention decision making personality socially appropriate behaviorprimary motor cortex controls movement contralateral organizationparietal lobe conceptualizing spatial layouts touch sensationprimary somatosensory cortex distorted representation of the body processing touch informationnearby sensations on the body are grouped together in the cortextemporal lobe memory auditory information processing specialized visual processing areaprimary auditory cortex sound processingfusiform face area FFA visual processing of faces at the border of the temporal and occipital lobesoccipital lobe visual information processingprimary visual cortex visual processing spatial relationships of visual images are projected from the eye to the cortex33 What are the various methods of communication within the nervous systemCommunication in the Nervous System through Neurotransmittersreleased from terminal boutonstravel short distances
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