PSC 101 Study Guide
Fill in the blanks:
The greek philosopher Herophilus hypothesized that nerves convey neural impulses and called
the brain the “seat of intellect”. Since he is believed to be one of the first to dissect the human
body and make hypotheses about the function of brain structures, he has been called the father
of anatomy. Years later, another pioneer, Descartes, believed that the brain was important for
human behavior, however, only to the extent that human behavior resembles the behavior of
beasts. Therefore, he proposed the theory of dualism; the brain is not responsible for the full
range of human behavior, uniquely human capabilities exist outside of the brain in the mind.
2. Dr. Zilthrow is interested in the effects of testosterone on aggressive behavior. She
hypothesizes that administration of testosterone will increase aggressive behavior. In order to
test her hypothesis, she administers either testosterone or vehicle (placebo) to two groups of
mice and then examines their behavior during an aggression test.
What is the independent variable?
Administration of testosterone
What is the dependent variable?
This scenario is an example of a somatic intervention. If Dr. Z wanted to assess the
relationship between testosterone and aggression using a behavioral intervention, how
would she conduct the experiment?
The behavioral effects are the independent variable and the physiological effects are
dependent; therefore, she would need to somehow induce aggression within them and
then measure testosterone levels.
3. Dr. Zilthrow wants to relate her research in mice to humans. She hypothesizes that men with
higher circulating testosterone are more aggressive. To test this hypothesis, she measures
testosterone concentrations in men and has them fill out an aggressive behavior index. She
finds that men with higher concentrations of circulating testosterone do report more aggressive
What is the independent variable?
No independent variable
What type of experiment is this?
What can Dr. Z conclude about testosterone and aggression from these data? (and why)
There is a relationship but one does not cause the other
1. Fill in the blanks
In order to better understand the brain, scientists discovered different methods to visualize brain
tissue. One technique was first thought to be a failure because it only stained 1-5% of neurons.
As is turned out, since the Golgi stain only stained 1-5% of neurons, it allowed scientists to
visualize the structure of a neuron for the first time. Two famous scientists used this stain to
provide support for their two very different theories: Reticular Theory and Neuron Doctrine. The
Neuron Doctrine states that neurons are very close to one another but that tiny gaps between
neurons keep them separate, whereas the Reticular Theory states that neurons are connected
to each other forming a continuous network through which information can flow through.
2. Name at least 2 types of glial cells and describe why these cells are called “support cells”.
Astrocytes- star shaped cells. Regulate blood flow to neurons, involved in the formation
of new synapses Microglial cells- the immune cells of the brain. very small, extend process to contact
single sites of damage removing debris from injured or dead cells. They can also cause
damage to nearby axons.
Oligodendrocytes- myelinate axons of the CNS
Schwann cells- myelinate axons in the PN
3. Draw a basic neuron and label the: cell body, axon, axon terminals, and dendrites. Label
where the information is received and what direction the information along an axon flows. Label
where neurotransmitter is released.
4. Neurons communicate in networks, each one receiving information from the neuron before it
and then transmitting that information to the neuron after it. The axon extends from the cell
body and carries electrical impulses and sends chemical signals to adjacent cells.
5. Label the following as belonging to the CNS or the PNS: Ganglion: PNS, Nuclei: CNS, Nerve:
PNS, Tract: CNS
6. On the diagram below label: Anterior, Posterior, Dorsal, Ventral, Lateral, and Medial. 7. In the spinal cord, Sensory information is received/enters the dorsal roots and Motor
information exits the ventral roots from the spinal cord to the body.
8. Cell bodies of all the autonomic sensory neurons lie outside the CNS within cell clusters
known as autonomic ganglia.
Match the following (place one letter in the space provided):
A. somatic, B. parasympathetic, C. sympathetic chain, D. PNS, E. autonomic
F. Acetycholine G. Norepinephrine
9. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine
10. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are found in the sympathetic chain
11. Autonomic ganglia are dispersed and found close to the target parasympathetic
12. Innervation of cardiac/smooth muscle, organ, gland in the PNS autonomic
13. Innervation of the skin, joint, and skeletal muscle in the PNS somatic
14. Name the type of plane illustrated below:
saggital plane coronal plane
15. In the CNS, the forebrain consists of the Telencephalon (3 components) and the
Diencephalon (2 components). What are the components of each?
Telencephalon- Cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system
Diencephalon- thalamus, hypothalaus
16. In the CNS, the Hindbrain is comprised of the metencephalon and the Myelencephalon
(Medulla). Of these 2 components mentioned, which of them holds the cerebellum and the
pons? The mentencephalon
17. The elevations produced by the folds in the cortex are called gyri and the valleys are called
18. In terms of location, is the parietal lobe rostral or caudal to the occipital lobe? rostral
19. Which type of cortex is phylogenetically youngest? Allocortex or Neocortex? neocortex
20. The cerebral cortex has cell bodies of neurons arranged in layers, each having a distinct
feature. Which cell is the most prominent cortical neuron? Pyramidal cell- a large nerve cell that
has a roughly pyramid-shaped cell body
21. The substantia nigra is