PSC 101 Exam 1

6 Pages

Course Code
PSC 101
Danielle Stolzenberg

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PSC 101 Study Guide Part 1 Fill in the blanks: The greek philosopher Herophilus hypothesized that nerves convey neural impulses and called the brain the “seat of intellect”. Since he is believed to be one of the first to dissect the human body and make hypotheses about the function of brain structures, he has been called the father of anatomy. Years later, another pioneer, Descartes, believed that the brain was important for human behavior, however, only to the extent that human behavior resembles the behavior of beasts. Therefore, he proposed the theory of dualism; the brain is not responsible for the full range of human behavior, uniquely human capabilities exist outside of the brain in the mind. 2. Dr. Zilthrow is interested in the effects of testosterone on aggressive behavior. She hypothesizes that administration of testosterone will increase aggressive behavior. In order to test her hypothesis, she administers either testosterone or vehicle (placebo) to two groups of mice and then examines their behavior during an aggression test. What is the independent variable? Administration of testosterone What is the dependent variable? Aggressive behavior This scenario is an example of a somatic intervention. If Dr. Z wanted to assess the relationship between testosterone and aggression using a behavioral intervention, how would she conduct the experiment? The behavioral effects are the independent variable and the physiological effects are dependent; therefore, she would need to somehow induce aggression within them and then measure testosterone levels. 3. Dr. Zilthrow wants to relate her research in mice to humans. She hypothesizes that men with higher circulating testosterone are more aggressive. To test this hypothesis, she measures testosterone concentrations in men and has them fill out an aggressive behavior index. She finds that men with higher concentrations of circulating testosterone do report more aggressive behavior. What is the independent variable? No independent variable What type of experiment is this? Correlational What can Dr. Z conclude about testosterone and aggression from these data? (and why) There is a relationship but one does not cause the other Part 2 1. Fill in the blanks In order to better understand the brain, scientists discovered different methods to visualize brain tissue. One technique was first thought to be a failure because it only stained 1-5% of neurons. As is turned out, since the Golgi stain only stained 1-5% of neurons, it allowed scientists to visualize the structure of a neuron for the first time. Two famous scientists used this stain to provide support for their two very different theories: Reticular Theory and Neuron Doctrine. The Neuron Doctrine states that neurons are very close to one another but that tiny gaps between neurons keep them separate, whereas the Reticular Theory states that neurons are connected to each other forming a continuous network through which information can flow through. 2. Name at least 2 types of glial cells and describe why these cells are called “support cells”. Astrocytes- star shaped cells. Regulate blood flow to neurons, involved in the formation of new synapses Microglial cells- the immune cells of the brain. very small, extend process to contact single sites of damage removing debris from injured or dead cells. They can also cause damage to nearby axons. Oligodendrocytes- myelinate axons of the CNS Schwann cells- myelinate axons in the PN 3. Draw a basic neuron and label the: cell body, axon, axon terminals, and dendrites. Label where the information is received and what direction the information along an axon flows. Label where neurotransmitter is released. 4. Neurons communicate in networks, each one receiving information from the neuron before it and then transmitting that information to the neuron after it. The axon extends from the cell body and carries electrical impulses and sends chemical signals to adjacent cells. 5. Label the following as belonging to the CNS or the PNS: Ganglion: PNS, Nuclei: CNS, Nerve: PNS, Tract: CNS 6. On the diagram below label: Anterior, Posterior, Dorsal, Ventral, Lateral, and Medial. 7. In the spinal cord, Sensory information is received/enters the dorsal roots and Motor information exits the ventral roots from the spinal cord to the body. 8. Cell bodies of all the autonomic sensory neurons lie outside the CNS within cell clusters known as autonomic ganglia. Match the following (place one letter in the space provided): A. somatic, B. parasympathetic, C. sympathetic chain, D. PNS, E. autonomic F. Acetycholine G. Norepinephrine 9. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine 10. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are found in the sympathetic chain 11. Autonomic ganglia are dispersed and found close to the target parasympathetic 12. Innervation of cardiac/smooth muscle, organ, gland in the PNS autonomic 13. Innervation of the skin, joint, and skeletal muscle in the PNS somatic 14. Name the type of plane illustrated below: saggital plane coronal plane 15. In the CNS, the forebrain consists of the Telencephalon (3 components) and the Diencephalon (2 components). What are the components of each? Telencephalon- Cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system Diencephalon- thalamus, hypothalaus 16. In the CNS, the Hindbrain is comprised of the metencephalon and the Myelencephalon (Medulla). Of these 2 components mentioned, which of them holds the cerebellum and the pons? The mentencephalon 17. The elevations produced by the folds in the cortex are called gyri and the valleys are called sulci. 18. In terms of location, is the parietal lobe rostral or caudal to the occipital lobe? rostral 19. Which type of cortex is phylogenetically youngest? Allocortex or Neocortex? neocortex 20. The cerebral cortex has cell bodies of neurons arranged in layers, each having a distinct feature. Which cell is the most prominent cortical neuron? Pyramidal cell- a large nerve cell that has a roughly pyramid-shaped cell body 21. The substantia nigra is
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