Midterm3 StudyGuide.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSC 140
Professor
Kathleen Latagunta
Semester
Winter

Description
- CONTRIBUTE!! not fair for just 3 people to finish this guide. Thanks Everyone :) Midterm 3 covers chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 plus information from related lectures notes and videos Good luck! THE CONTEXTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT Be familiar with the definitions of the several different types of families described in lecture. Also be able to describe some of the risks/problems with some of these family types (if any) and the “protective” factors that increase the chances for optimal development within these different kinds of families. NOTE THERE IS A DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE BOOK’S DEFINITION OF NUCLEAR FAMILY AND WHAT I TOLD YOU IN LECTURE. LEARN THE DEFINITION I GAVE YOU IN LECTURE (IT IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED DEFINITION, INCLUDING THE DICTIONARY DEFINITION, OF NUCLEAR FAMILY): Mother, father, + biological children Nuclear Family • father, mother, biological children • decreased from 85% in 1970 to 70% in 2008 (higher rates of divorce, single parents, higher rates of “alternative” family arrangements) (divorce may not be all bad, if viewed from the POV of women, they are now escaping abusive or unhealthy relationships which may be better for the children in the long run) Single-Parent Families (the percentage of these have grown in recent years) • majority headed by women • (see more stats in question below) Blended Families • structure of family=parent, stepparent, children • mom/stepfather=most common (most common because in the past mothers were almost always given full custody of the children, however with changing parenting roles and a higher involvement rate of fathers, this is changing and fathers are being given custody more often than before) o stepfather often seen as “intruder” o often have limited access to biological dad • father/stepmother o adjustment harder for girls @ first; typically confounded by severe problems w/ biological mother (in some cases mother may have substance abuse problems or psychological problems that have to be dealt with along with the introduction of a new motherly figure) • protective factors o strong relationship b/w biological parent and stepparent o “Easing” into family role by stepparent o Family Therapy o biological parents remaining friendly Children Raised by Same-Sex Parents • increasing in recent years o easier access to donors o increased custody given by courts • Developmental effects: o no differences from children in families w/ heterosexual couples o Depends on quality of parents’ relationship, parenting practices (and parent-child relationships). SES o May be more open to experimentation with the same sex → and have less problems because of this. She talked about how if a child is gay and remains closeted there are more negative correlations than if the child is able to be accepted for his/her sexuality. Thanks!! • Issues o Relationship to extended family/relatives may be broken o children may be stigmatized by fear • Protective o make sure relationship with family members stay solid. Adoptive Families • Increased adoption rate in recent years; especially of foreign children • Adopted children: o tend to have more learning and emotional difficulties compared to nonadoptive age mates in childhood and adolescence (depends on age of adoption) • Development of ethnic identity affected by practices of adoptive parents Be familiar with the percentage of children born outside of marriage to women between 20-30 years of age (New York Times article) and how this has changed in recent years. How do the percentages vary by mother’s race or ethnicity? How do the percentages vary by maternal education level? - More than 50% of children are born to moms under age 30 outside of marriage -causes: • fastest growth since ‘90 in white women w/ some college but not 4-year, degree • education level varies (majority of women w/ 4-year degree marry before having kids o In 1990 21% had no college education, increased to 51% in 2009 o In 1990 11% had some college education, increased to 34% in 2009 o In 1990 3% had a 4-year college degree, increased to 8% in 2009 • race/ethnicity varies (73% black children born outside of marriage, 53% Latinos, 29% whites) • children born outside of marriage are at elevated risks for poverty, and emotional and behavioral problems (from the article, possibly important) Has the average # of children per family increased or decreased in the past 50 years? What are some reasons for why? decreased from 3.8 children in 1950’s to 2.1 now. Reductions are because now there is more access to contraceptives, higher level of education in women, more delay in childbirth- having at an older age (due to career or schooling), a higher divorce rate, and it’s more expensive than ever to raise children Kinda contradicts the above about how many children are born from moms with no or little college education... well that’s what the notes say so I don’t know that data is only for children born OUTSIDE of marriage - this question is referring to families What are some of the causes of sibling rivalry? -compete for resources, including attention -new baby can be esp. difficult for children under 4 yrs. old -rivalry most common in situations of: differential treatment, unstable family circumstances, coercive or hostile parenting Be able to describe the RESOURCE DILUTION MODEL for the influence of multiple children on the intellectual development. Resource Dilution Model: parental resources become “diluted” w/ each additional child (setting, treatments, opportunities). Therefore, children with the fewest siblings have the best educational outcomes - Other possibilities are that more educated parents tend to have fewer children (smart people have fewer children opposed to small families make smart people) Why?? in the notes it says that more educated parents tend to have fewer kids and that is the reason for the above statement So is this basically saying that more educated couples have fewer kids because they understand that with more kids resources become diluted?? No it just means they start having kids later because they are in school and dont have the time to raise a kid as opposed to someone who is uneducated and doesnt understand what it takes to be a parent I understand now. Thanks! What page is this on in the book? I’m not sure about the book but it is in the Contexts of Early Child Development notes How and why can birth order affect intellectual development? -results are mixed • depends on AGE kid was tested • significant correlation b/w birth order and academic achievement has been found for children over 11 yrs (1st borns outperform later borns) -why? • earliest yrs of development they didn’t have to share parental resources • 1st borns get intellectual advantage of being “tutor” to younger children, and solidify perceptual reasoning What are some developmental effects of having no siblings? positive: -high self-esteem -achievement-oriented (as much as children w/ one other sibling) -more privacy (more privacy as in having own room, but not necessarily more privacy altogether because they may have extra- maybe unwanted- attention from their parents because there is nobody else to concentrate on) -more financial resources negative: -may be more pressure from parents -have more difficulty in social relationships -lack of sibling relationships (can be avoided if let child interact with other kids) -less help with aging parents Be able to clearly describe and give examples of the 4 major types of parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved/neglectful (know how they vary on responsiveness and demandingness). What types of behaviors/child outcomes are each of these parenting styles associated with? Does this vary by culture/SES? If so, why and how? Authoritarian • High in Demand(HD)( setting rules , etc) , Low in Responsiveness (LR)( loving, affection) • Children: o Have lower social competence o Often seek adult help for peer conflicts o Higher rates of anger towards authority • These parents try to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children according to a certain standard. They stress the importance of obedience to authority and discourage their children from engaging in the verbal give-and-take with them. They address the child’s bad behavior with punitive measures (physical punishment) - from the book pg 345 6th edition Authoritative (seen as being the best) (associated with most positive developmental in blue collar upper to middle class, not necessarily best in all situations such as in at risk areas) • High in Demand (HD) , High in Responsiveness(HR) • Children o Are competent, self-controlled and curious o Have better school performance • They have high standards for the children’s behavior but recognize that they have needs and rights. Tend to be warm and responsive and willing to consider their children’s point of view. They attempt to control their children by explaining their rules or decisions instead of stressing obedience to authority for the sake of obedience. Encourage independence but social responsibility. - book pg 345 6th edition Permissive • Low in Demand (LD), High in Responsiveness (HR) • Children: o Have low self-control and are immature • Exercise less explicit control over children’s behavior, they believe their children must learn to behave through their own experiences. They give their children a lot of leeway and often consult them about family policies. They tend to be warm, but do not demand the same levels of achievement and mature behavior as first two. - textbook pg 345 6th edition Uninvolved/Neglectful • Low in Demand (LD), and Low in Responsiveness (LR) • Children: o Have low social competence o Have poor school performance o Other mental, emotional, and psychological problems • Do not take the trouble to provide discipline - pg 346 Influence of parenting style may vary by culture and SES • Authoritative parenting correlated with better outcomes for Hispanic-American and European- American children • Authoritarian parenting - better outcomes for African-American children ( esp girls) ; especially in low income neighborhoods o living in an area with high crime, the more rules and restrictions, the better for the children • Authoritarian parenting correlated with higher academic achievement in Asian-Americans • Authoritarian parenting also beneficial in poverty situations..obedience is demanded and this is beneficial to the child because usually they live in very unsafe areas. Be able to describe some of the child outcomes associated with teenage motherhood. What helps children of teenage moms remain resilient? -often more aggressive and perform more poorly in school compared to other children -why? • teen moms don’t talk to their babies as much • limited financial resources (typically live in poverty) • social isolation of mothers • lower education level of mother -Resilience (protective factors) • live in extended family households • Live in environments that are more intellectually stimulating and less stressful • If the mothers: o received more years of education o are employed o live with male partner o read to their babies o take advantage of  center-based child care  educational opportunities  job-training programs  social programs Be able to describe some of the short and long term consequences of divorce. How are these effects dependent in part on the gender and age of the child? What are 4 factors that make a difference in how children handle divorce? Do most kids whose parents divorce end up doing fine or do they have significant problems? Consequences of divorce • Financial hardship o Mother-headed household experience a sharp drop in income o 75% of mothers get less child support than they should  about 25% get nothing o Moving to a new household may be disruptive resulting in less support from family and friends  minimal parenting Gender differences • Both boys and girls may show decline in school achievement in the aftermath of divorce • Boys ( in mother custody families - especially ) o experience more immediate serious adjustment problems, especially behavior problems • Girls: May show short-term internalizing problems (anxiety,depression) and experience long term effects on intimate relationships Age differences • Young children o exhibit separation anxiety o Blame themselves o Fantasize about parents reuniting • Older children may o Respond positively to extra responsibilities o Exhibit negative behaviors like truancy, delinquency, running away, and promiscuity Four factors that Make a Difference in how Kids Handle Divorce 1. Boys have more difficulty immediately, especially if they live with their mothers 2. Children whose relationship with their father continues, do better 3. Children whose parents behave well towards each other do better 4. Children’s whose financial circumstances do not dramatically change do better ***The high majority of children experience no serious negative long-term effects Be able to describe/identify some of the influences of poverty on child development. -18% children in U.S. live in poverty ( 40% low-income) -problems: • low quality housing, health care, schools, recreation choices • safety a big issue • higher stress from multiple sources -parents deal w/ it by: • larger emphasis on obedience (authoritarian parenting) • discourage exploration • more likely to use physical punishment • less nurturant • may be ADAPTIVE for current circumstances but may LIMIT long-term achievements see more authoritarian parenting - more “do what I say” and less physical affection and nurturing. What are some of the positive effects of Head Start programs? ( more resources in preschool = better outcomes than resources put in adolescence) -kids less likely to be assigned to remedial classrooms in grade school -MORE LIKELY TO GRADUATE HIGH SCHOOL (important to secure a job) -less likely to be incarcerated or on welfare in adulthood -pos. results depend on actual classroom (can vary by quality, too) • some teachers are outstanding, others are mediocre and may not have much positive impact Be able to describe risk factors for child abuse on the CHILD, FAMILY, AND COMMUNITY LEVELS. What are some of the effects of child abuse? How are these effects the same/different from the effects of just WITNESSING domestic violence? Is being abused in childhood a RISK FACTOR for abusing one’s own children? Do MOST abused children go on to abuse their own children later when they are adults? Risk Factors: -Family Level • history of abuse in parent’s family of origin (but 70% of parents who were abused DO NOT GO ON TO ABUSE THEIR OWN CHILDREN) • premature, sick, or temperamentally difficult child • Unmanageable parental stress (chronic poverty, marital discord, substance abuse, unemployment) -Community Level • Isolation from social support -Cultural Level • Availability of violent images • acceptance of corporal punishment Effects of Abuse: -Depends on type of abuse, age/gender of child, and how information of the abuse is handled -Common effects: • lower school achievement • internalizing problems (anxiety/depression) • externalizing problems (aggression/acting out) • poor peer relationships • low self-esteem • inappropriate sexual behavior and promiscuity (in cases of sexual abuse) Witnessing Domestic Violence -children who repeatedly witness marital violence exhibit many of the same symptoms of those children directly abused • lower school achievement • internalizing and externalizing problems • poor peer relationships • difficulty in understanding and expressing human emotions What are some of the issues surrounding the influence of t.v. on child development (stereotypes, violence, sexual content, etc.)? Issues are: • can child separate fantasy from reality, difficult of programs to process, and good vs. bad tv -European males are the most frequent characters -only 33% of entertainment shows have ethnic minorities as main characters (and even then, they are shown in a very stereotypical light more often than not) -and women on 25-30% -Gender/Ethnic stereotypes • can encourage or maintain neg. stereotypes in young children about themselves/other people • men= powerful, aggressive, smart, dominant • women=pretty, young, passive, less intelligent, object of sexual advances -sexual content an issue (Especially when it comes to teenagers when it comes to sexual behavior/identity. Trying to figure out what everyone is actually doing vs. what they say they are.) Violence -60-80% of t.v shows contain violence -by time average U.S. child enters middle school, they have seen approx. 8,000 murders and more than 100,000 other violent acts on T.V. - violence is however defended by the television networks as “reflecting real world” o <0.2% of crimes are murders in “real world” compared to 50% in “tv world” -aggression and violence INCREASE in areas after t.v was introduced Is there a correlation between exposure to t.v. violence and aggressive behavior? -media violence and aggression is 2nd highest correlation after smoking and lung cancer ( 0.3) Is there a causal link between exposure to television violence and aggressive behavior? -over 1,000 studies show that yes there is causal connection b/w media violence and aggressive behavior (with actual experimental studies, not only statistical analyses) What can be done about limiting the effects of t.v. violence? -parents take an active role--monitor children’s viewing and watch shows together *problem: joint t.v. viewing typically happens for adult programs -media needs to report scientific evidence more accurately; researcher need to spend more time being public policy advocates ← what does that mean? The media often misreports/oversimplifies scientific research. Researchers are often too involved in the world of academia and don’t play a major role on the policy side, where things actually happen. Do children benefit from watching educational t.v., such as Sesame Street? -can teach children about letter, numbers, colors, shapes, social relationships -correlated w/ high performance on vocabulary and basic academ. knowledge tests in early grade school -BUT, more often watched in high-SES homes and has been criticized for expanding the achievement gap b/w high SES and low SES children despite marketing efforts towards low SES families Does the American Academy of Pediatrics believe that children under age 2 should watch t.v./videos? Does this match parents’ opinions/practices? -AAP recommends no T.V. for children under 2 yrs -On the contrary, 50% of American public believes videos like Baby Einstein are important for cognitive development in babies/toddlers PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Be familiar with biological changes between 5&12 in height & weight, and influences on this development -grow about 15-20 inches in height -double in weight (gain ~45-55 lbs) influences: genes, good nutrition, overall health Are there gender differences in physical growth during middle childhood? -girls have earlier growth spurt ( start ~12 yrs) than boys (start ~13-14 yrs) Are there gender differences in motor development (and athletic competencies)? Potential sources? Boys: better at force and strength skills (ex. running, throwing, catching) More advanced in motor abilities that require force & power Girls: better at balance and coordination skills (ex. skipping, jump rope, cartwheels) Excel in fine motor skills (drawing) & gross motor skills that combine balance & foot movement. sources: practice/experience during early childhood, reinforcement from parents) Be familiar with the significant increase in obesity rates. How do obesity rates vary by socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and race? -nearly tripled in past 30 yrs -19% children obese in US -highest childhood obesity rates are found in African American girls (38%) and Mexican-American boys (44%) -more common in low SES families What are some explanations for increased rate of childhood obesity? What type(s) of intervention is/are successful? What kinds of new laws are being passed? -may be linked to increasing popularity of “Western” fast food diet -altered dietary intake (esp increase in high fat, high-sugar foods; bigger portion sizes) -decreased physical activity, increased TV watching -lower cost/higher availability of junk food -genetic links (proven in twin and adoption studies) interventions: -lifestyle change: diet/exercise, usually Family-Based intervention -new laws: state mandated body screenings in schools, new nutritional standards for school lunches, expand P.E. requirements, new standards for food/drink vending machines in schools What are some physical and social effects of childhood obesity? -80% chance obese children will stay obese in adulthood -type 2 diabetes -elevated BP levels -orthopedic problems -fatty liver disease -sleep apnea -stroke -cardiovascular disease -early onset of puberty -asthma -low life expectancy -mental health issues -peer rejection Be familiar with changes in the brain during middle childhood and their connection to changes in cognition increases in: -myelination of frontal cortex (planning/problem solving) -synapses (more connections) -synaptic pruning -alpha activity (indicating active engagement) -EEG coherence • diff parts of the brain. are more able to “work together” more effectively -coordination of frontal cortex w/ other areas of the brain linked to: • better control of attention • more sophisticated problem-solving (ex. Tower of Hanoi)- Does anyone know what page the Tower of Hanoi example is on the in 6th edition of the text? • better planning skills • increased self-reflection Know the definition of conservation, standard procedures for conservation tasks, and how “concrete operational children” solve them based on their knowledge about identity, compensation, and reversibility conservation: ability to understand that the properties of an object/substance are not changed by a change in appearance -concrete operational children solve them by: 1. Identity • outward changes don’t change substances involved 2. Compensation • changes in one dimension compensate for changes in another 3. Reversibility • one operation can be negated or reversed (water can be poured back in original beaker) Besides conservation, what are some other indices of concrete operational thought? (Further Evidence of “Concrete Operations”) 1. Hierarchical Classification o can focus on subordinate and superordinate categories at the same time (can solve class inclusion tasks)....ex: pigs vs animals ...which is bigger? kids will respond correctly with animals 2. Seriation (still not clear about this did she give an example in class?) I don’t remember an example in class, but I found this online. → One of the important processes that develops is that of Seriation, which refers to the ability to sort objects or situations according to any characteristic, such as size, color, shape, or type. For example, the child would be able to look at his plate of mixed vegetables and eat everything except the brussels sprouts. thanks! • ability to order items along quantitative dimension • understanding of ‘transitive inference’=if A < B and B < C then A must be < C • Problem solving logic 3. Spatial Operations • better ability to represent spatial layouts, or ‘cognitive maps’, of locations or routes Are there cultural differences in achieving concrete operational thought? If so, what? -Piaget argued that concrete operations is universal development and finding show that it appears to be a universal cognitive achievement but there are cultural variations in age achieved -need to test knowledge in native language w/ familiar materials What are some of the limitations of concrete operational thinking?’ According to Piaget: -logic/reasoning only applied to concrete, directly perceivable objects, people, or events -more difficult for children to reason “hypothetically”.....although today we think otherwise Be familiar with how speed of processing, knowledge base, strategies, and metamemory influence children’s memory and cognition in middle childhood (know what each of these are, how they develop, etc.) Speed of Processing: -increase in memory span (4-5 yrs=4 digits, 9-10 yrs=6, Adults=7) -related to speed in which children can name the items to be remembered (faster=less memory decay) -also increase in age w/ retrieval of info from long term memory Knowledge Base: -=store of info about objects, people, the world -expertise improves memory -research by Chi • 10 y/o chess “experts” had better memory for meaningful arrangements of chess pieces than adult “non-experts”; but the adults had larger memory span for random objects Memory Strategies: =deliberate actions to increase storage and retrieval of info -requires individual to: 1. think about goal 2. plan how to achieve goal -three common strategies: 1. Rehearsal (quietly repeat items or repeat in head) 2. Memory Organization (mentally group or chunk in meaningful units) 3. Elaboration (make connections b/w 2 or more things) Metamemory: =knowledge about memory processes -5 y/o: • overestimate how much they can remember • underestimate the effort it takes to remember or the strategies required Be familiar with findings about child chess-experts vs. adult non-experts (research by Chi) on memory. How does this reveal the importance of content knowledge for memory? Content knowledge 10 y/o chess “experts” had better memory for meaningful arrangements of chess pieces than adult “non-experts”; but the adults had larger memory span for random objects I’m not sure, but I think this refers to the fact that the young chess experts have more specialized content knowledge about chess, so they can chunk certain pieces together. Remember that short term memory can keep 4-9 items, if you can chunk these pieces than you can hold many more in your short term memory. Since there was no meaning to the board with random arrangements the adults had a larger memory span. Cultural differences in memory -better memory strategies in children who attend school -greater spontaneous use of organizational strategies -But: no memory diff. if objects are presented as part of a story instead of randomly Min strategy -ex: 2+10 vs 10+2 children can solve 10+2 faster -easier to add two more numbers to 10 as opposed to ten more numbers to 2 Children’s problem solving & how it is assessed using the “balance scale” method. How do 5s vs 9s compare? What dimension (weight or distance) does 5s most often focus on? -children can attend to one variable then to two variables, then can combine knowledge about 2+ variables -use balance scale b/c kids need to consider: • weight • distance from fulcrum • combo of weight/distance -most
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