Anthro midterm study guide

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University of California - Irvine
Gwen Jenkins

Terms/Concepts/People to know—be sure you can identify the following items, provide an example if relevant, and explain why each is important to the study of race, gender, and science: • Social construct o how society groups people and how it privileges certain groups over others o perception of an individual, group, or idea that is 'constructed' through cultural or social practice  Example: the irish were seen as feeble minded people because of their culture in the past.  Important: people should not be judged and perceived a certain way due to the group/race they belong to • Race o Taxonomical category below species level  Not biologically real but enormously significant o Important: social factors/ how people treat you can be embodied  Society gives this word meaning • Subspecies o Races are sub species, sometimes ranked • Melanin o What gives skin a darker color o Biological: provides protection from the sun  Explains why people inAfrica have darker complexions • Hypodescent o One drop rule  of black blood or nativeAmerican blood o Example: Obama is half white half black but people see him as black o Important: this became an economic benefit for slavery • Sex o used to refer to biological differences between male and female • Gender o used to refer to the learned cultural differences between men and women • Intersex o people born with reproductive sexual anatomy that doesn’t fir typical definitions of male and female • Sworn Virgin o ◾Women who swear to live as en because there are not enough men in the family • Hijra o “leaving ones tribe” o , in the culture of South Asia, are men who have feminine gender identity, adopt feminine gender roles and wear women's clothing. • Muxe o physically male individual who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise [ associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender. • Two-Spirit o Viewed as having two spirits occupying one body o Dress usually a mixture of traditionally male and traditionally female o Have distinct gender and social roles in their tribes • Adam and Eve o unity of mankind and preordained gender roles • Curse of ham o explained descendants of Noah’s sons used to justifyAfrican slave trade • Carolus Linnaeus o Founder of biological nomenclature o Taxonomy o Systema Naturae  Labeling the species • Great Chain of Being o used to explain social hierarchies o God, angels, demons, man, woman, animals, plants, minerals o Fixed ladder of perfection • Monogenism o Single origin of humanity o all human types are part of the same species o different climates caused departure from the "original type" o some human types had "degenerated" since creation • Polygenism o Different origins of humanitty o different human groups are different species o heredity is the source of racial differences, not the environment o Louis Agassiz popularized polygenism • Buffon • Blumenbach • Phrenology • Samuel Morton o provided facts that supported polygenism  each race created separately o measured volume of skull to estimate size of brain therefore intellectual ability • LouisAgassiz o Scientific racism o popularizer of polygenism o different centers of creation and story of adam and eve only refers to caucasians o need to maintain separation between races to prevent sickly half-breeds • Georges Cuvier • Charles Darwin • Saartjie Baartman (“Venus Hottentot”) o female sexual anatomy o women exhibited as freak show attraction o put on display after death until remains returned to SouthAfrica • Biological determinism • Natural selection • Social Darwinism • Naturalization of inequality • Social evolutionism • Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck • Thomas Malthus • Francis Galton • Inheritance of acquired characteristics • Charles Davenport • Buck v. Bell • “Negative” & “positive” eugenics • Rassenhygiene  • Franz Boas • clines • UNESCO statements on race Questions to be able to answer: • Most anthropologists have concluded that racial categories are social constructions rather than biological certainties. What evidence do they use to support this view and what are some of the problems with applying the biological concept of race to humans? If race is not biological, why is it important? o Problems:  • Western culture is committed to the idea that there are only two sexes and that they correspond to only two genders. Identify THREE s
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