Anthro Final review sheet.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Thomas Douglas

Industrialism -Charlie Chaplin Video –Focused on how industries over work their workers. They find methods to try to make the workers work efficiently such as making an automated feeder so that workers can continue to work while they are eating Time Discipline- Rise of Factories –people learned to live their lives by the clock rather than by nature’s cycle. E.P. Thompson- wrote time, work discipline, and industrial capitalism. Thompson argued that observance of clock-time is a consequence of the European industrial revolution and that neither industrial capitalism nor the creation of the modern state would have been possible without the imposition of synchronic forms of time and work discipline. The new clock time imposed by government and capitalist interests replaced earlier, collective perceptions of time that Thompson believed flowed from the collective wisdom of human societies. While, in fact, it appears likely that earlier views of time were imposed instead by religious and other social authorities prior to the industrial revolution, Thompson's work identified time discipline as an important concept for study within the social sciences. Shift from Task Orientation to Time-Discipline- work no longer depends on the season. It depends on time to establish when to work. Rise of the Use of Clocks- it creates a clock dependency The "Enclosures" – the loss of access to land in Europe by peasants farmers. Shift in Gender Roles- Exploitation of Workers Lengthening of work hours and work week- since there are no longer dependency in the season or nature to wake up, industries increase hours and weeks through established times when they can enter or leave work. Role of Religious Reformers on Industrialism Luddite Rebellions-1811-1812- deatroyed factory looms and burned factories in southern england 1848 Rebellions-a time of massive civil unrest across western Europe. Crime rates in the cities continue to rise as people left the countryside to find work and prostitution rises Karl Marx- worte the communist manifesto Communist Manifesto-by Karl marx. Claimed that factory workers are not treated as human beings Alienation- dehumanized Theory of Surplus Value- Marx’s idea that capitalist (factory owners) make profits by exploiting the workers Aihwa Ong- wrote Japanese Factories, Malay Workers: Class and Sexual Metaphors in West Malaysia. Malaysian Electronics Factories –Will hire female girls to work for them. Usually located in free trade zones that gives the factories no minimum wages, no liability, no workers protection laws, no health safety laws Factory Workers –Usually teenage girls from the countryside with an elementary education Kampung Lifestyle –women are perceived to have a weak spirituality. They are susceptible to spirit possession that will cause them to have rage fits. Girls are brought up to be shy, timid, obedient to parents, and fearful. Gender and Racial Inequalities within Factories -Top-Company officers: Japanese, European, American Men -Next –Engineers –China –men -Next –Foremen –Indian –Men -Bottom –Factory Workers –Teenage girls, paid least, local community Exploitation of Factory Women –because workers are teenage girls, companies can pay them very little Spirit Attacks –after a certain amount of time working in these factories, some women workers experience some symptoms of over working, they take these symptoms as spirit attacks Spirit Cleansings -factories will play along with the spirit attack so they do not risk a protest from the workers and will close down the factory for a couple of days and hire a shaman. Once the factory has been “cleansed” the workers will go back to work like nothing has happen. The factory experienced this so many times that they can predict when the next attack will occur. Race - (Please review your video notes!) Stephen J. Gould – Race is a cultural construct –wrote the mismeasure of man Human Variation as a Continuum Clines Skin Color, Sickle CellAnemia & Other “Racial” Variations Marvin Harris Bundled Traits IQ Tests –a test that prove that some race are more intelligent than other races. However, these test are more culture bound. Cultural Bias –stereotypes such as blacks are more athletic than everyone else Paul Broca- 1861 wrote Est in 1861 –The anthropological society of Paris -claims science proves that europeans are biological superior to other races. APrioriAssumptions –an assumption that europeans are intellectually superior to other groups and if results are disagreeing with the discover, then it is thrown out. Foramen Magnum –the connection of the brain and spine. Humans are more vertical while mammals such as dogs are more 90 degrees Skull Size and Intelligence –hypothesized that a longer skull would have a higher developed frontal lobe which equals to greater intelligence Asian,African, European –Europeans are superior, then comes Asians, andAfricans are on the very bottom Scientific Racism –the usage of science to prove that whites are superior to everyone else Robert Bean –Claimed in 1906 that he had that white brains were superior to black brains. From the corpus callosum tissue Corpus Callosum –Bean clain that the tissue was thicker therefore superior in white brains. Franklin P. Mall did a blind test and found no difference between whites and blacks. Video – “Race: The Power of an Illusion” - DNAand Racial Classification – No Race Gene! Humans are genetically similar about 99.9% Hoffman’s Extinction Thesis –since some races are more prehistoric, they will eventually die out. No matter the efforts of other race to provide help to them. Mitochondrial DNA–comes from your mother. Not racially specific The Trobrianders Adolescent Sexuality Yams, Skirts and Trobriand Marriage Matrilineal –women has majority of the power in the society. Aman becomes chief due to his mother Trobriand Husband-Wife Relationship Incest Taboos Trobriand Beliefs of Procreation - Trobriand Beliefs of Procreation: two are needed to make a baby; mother opens the path for the waiwaia spirit and the father’s semen, though not responsible for pregnancy, helps the baby to grow strong Trobriand Beliefs of Procreation: two are needed to make a baby; mother opens the path for the waiwaia spirit and the father’s semen, though not responsible for pregnancy, helps the baby to grow strong Baloma Spirit - Baloma Spirit: Trobrianders believed that when a person dies, their ‘baloma spirit’ goes to live in Tuma Island –a kind of paradise for 80 years Tuma Island – Reincarnation - Reincarnation: after 80 years on Tuma Island, the soul has grown old and winkled so it must renew itself by bathing in the ocean Waiwaia Spirit - Waiwaia Spirit: after bathing, the soul has become a new baby spirit –the waiwaia spirit, which swims to the Trobriand Islands to find a potential mother Who Takes Cares of Trobriand Children? –Father The Sagali - The Sagali: the primary event where women show their power –kind of funeral; women give away their wealth at sagalis to take care of the needs of the dead "Owners of the Dead" and "Workers
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