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[ANTHRO 2B] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (31 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHRO 2B
Professor
James Egan
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
ANTHRO 2B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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SEP. 25, 2015
1. Anthropology: What is it?
anthropos = man
logos = word
study of human beings
2. Human difference
3. Biological & Cultural difference
human biological and cultural study across space and time
1. Science
a. Epistemology: framework of knowledge, way of building knowledge about ourself
b. empirical
c. natural laws and processes
d. how vs. why
e. assumptions, faith and the provisional
-hypothesis: a statement that can be tested or experimented
confidence in statement
science has never proven anything
science makes assumptions
origin of races: how did we become different races
polygenesis: different origins?
enlightenment: stages of reason
reason: science will guide the way
how the plant grows towards the sun
science: mechanism that governs how things work
science has shown raw human curiosity
assumptions, believing things that aren’t considered true until proven
1. Classical Greece
A.) Plato
Eidos - ideal type, true, in cosmological world
B.) Aristotle
- Great chain of being
2. Middle Ages
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*Rome collapsed*
-Fixity of species
3. Emergence of Western Science
A.) Archbishop James Ussher
-4004 BC
C.) Rene DesCartes
D.) Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778)
-systema naturae- 1735
labeled the same because of shared anatomical features
binomial: unique type of organism, naming it by genus
wolf: canis lupus
dog: canis familiriaris
humas: homo sapiens
E.) Lamarck (1744-1829)
1.) Great Chain of Being
2.) Evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics
3.) Problems with Lamarck: problem with growth and progress
circular argument
F.) George Cuvier: studied fossils
catastrophism: natural disasters happened and they wiped out all life forms in the area + others
move in to repopulate that area
-problem
G.) Geology
1. James Hutlon
-uniformitarianism- natural process
have and always will be at work
2. Sir Charles Lyell- wrote the first textbook: Principles of Geology
1.) Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
A.) Biography
Born into a physician family. Enrolled in Edwards Univ. enjoyed natural sciences
physically sick of seeing live labs (surgeries) dropped out of classes
enrolled at price college of Cambridge to become a minister of a church
Lineaus society
Was given a letter to be on a ship to go around
Set sail on a journey that lasted 5 years, coast of south america, many opportunities to go on
shore
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