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[BIO SCI 35] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (32 pages long)

by

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 35
Professor
Andreacecilia Nicholas
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
BIO SCI 35
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1: Historical Beliefs of the Mind
Learning Objectives:
5 historical perspectives of brain and behavior.
Compare and contrast 3 significant figures that extended beliefs of the mind
Concepts:
Prehistoric Beliefs
Not everything was natural
People didn't know what was going to happen next, so they wanted to
Predict the future.
Knowing science today, we disprove these ideas.
Through magic and superstition, people tried to make sense out of unbelievable.
Book of the Dead
Heart recorded evil and good deeds not brain
Weighed heart against feather of death.
14th Century China
Forces in wind cause diseases of mind.
Wrote out problems on Dragon bones and burnt them for fortune
Confucius
5 elements - 5 states of power under Emperor
Maintain balance and harmony was purpose
Different kinds of materials influence the organ.
Being in balance w/environment.
Shusruta
Hindu medicine
1) Enlightened goodness - Brain
2) Passion & Pain - Chest
3) Animal instincts - Abdomen
Disordered thoughts and strong emotions --> physical disease states.
Pythagoras
3 Part soul:
1) Reason (truth)
2) Intelligence (sensory perception)
3) Impulse (bodily energies)
Brain was rational while heart was irrational. Brain overrode animal instincts.
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Hippocrates
4 Basic Temperaments
Cholera (anger): Yellow bile
Melancholic (sad): Black bile
Sanguine (positive/social): Blood
Phlegmatic (calm/peaceful): Phlegm
Claimed that Brain is associated with Mind.
Plato & Aristotle
Intellect - Brain
Fear, pride, anger, & courage - liver
Lust, greed, desire - Lower intestine
Suggested there is struggle between animal urges and higher intelligence
Aristotle believed in Egyptians and wanted to test theory - found that heart regulated all thought and
emotion merely based on alcohol flush. Blood is hot, heart is hot - alcohol causes different parts of body
to act weirdly.
Galen (Gladiator's physician)
Behavioral problems from Clogged pores
Discovered ventricals and thought food converted to "vital spirits"
Extended Hippocrates 4 humors:
Choleric - easily angered
Sanguine - optimistic
Melancholic - prone to sadness
Phlegmatic - apathetic and unenthused
Dissected animals to understand humors and thus humans
Persian Culture (The "Galen" of Islam)
Looked at different parts of brain
Correctly determined frontal lobe to be associated with reasoning/common sense -->
Higher ordered thinking.
The inquisition 1233
Burn people for odd behavior
Paracelcus 1567
Lunatici - reaction to moon phases
Insani - suffering from heritable birth traits
Vesani - poisoning by food or drink
Melancholici - problems with temperament
Obsessi - obsessed with the devil.
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